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Judaism Definitions.docx

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Carleton University
RELI 1710
Zeba Crook

Antiochus IV Epiphanes: King of Syria; policy of attaining political unity by propagating Greek culture met with violent resistance from the Jews Apocalyptic: all the various portions of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, whether canonical or apocryphal, in which eschatological predictions are given in the form of a revelation Ashera: Asherah, the Shekinah, consort and beloved of Yahweh. God-the-Mother. Her sacred pillars or poles once stood right beside Yahweh's altar, embracing it. Moses and Aaron both carried one of these Asherah "poles" as a sacred staff of power. The Children of Israel were once dramatically healed simply by gazing at the staff with serpents suspended from it. This symbol, the snakes and the staff, has become the modern universal symbol for doctors and healers.* Asherah was also widely known in the Middle Eastern ancient world as a Goddess of Healing. Ashkenazim: A member of the branch of European Jews, historically Yiddish-speaking, who settled in central and northern Europe. Assimilation: people of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family. Ba'al: storm-fertility god of the ancient Canaanites Bar Kochba: died 135 AD Jewish leader who led an unsuccessful revolt against the Romans in Palestine Bar/Bat Mitzvah: a coming of age ceremony for a boy/girl when they start to be seen as adults within the Jewish community Bereshit: the first of the Five Books of Moses. It deals with the Creation of the Universe by God in Six "Days," and his "rest' on Shabbat, the Seventh Day. Adam, Original Man, is created; Chava, Original Woman and Adam's wife, is created from him. Canaan: Ancient city stretching over modern day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and parts of Jordan. Abraham and Sarah moved here from Ur Conservative Judaism: movement attempting to adapt Judaism to modern life by using principles of change within the traditional laws; occupies middle ground between Reform and Orthodox Judaism Covenant: relationship between God and Israel, enacted on Mt. Sinai, based on Israel’s acceptance of God’s Torah Cultural Judaism: raised Jewish, but might not necessarily believe in God or follow religious texts Cyrus: King of Persia. He was honoured as a Messiah in the Jewish texts for helping them rebuild the Temple. He is the only non-Jew to receive this honour. David/Davidic king: Most beloved king. Dead Sea Scrolls: The papyrus scrolls and scroll fragments discovered between 1947 and 1960 at sites along the Dead Sea, mostly dating from the last two centuries B.C., containing passages from books of the Hebrew Scriptures and from apocryphal biblical books, as well as sectarian writings. They are of great importance for reconstructing the compilation of the Hebrew Scriptures and for understanding Jewish culture in the era immediately preceding the birth of Jesus. Diaspora: the dispersion of Jews away from the Jewish homeland, to live as minorities in another land Elijah: Hebrew prophet in the time of Jezebel who maintained the worship of Jehovah against that of Baal and other pagan gods. Eschatology: doctrine about the last things; the end of the world, judgement day, consummation of God’s plan Essenes: frugal Jewish movement around the Dead Sea area from the second century BCE to the first century CE Exile: the Jewish captivity in Babylon, especially the period from the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE until the first return to Jerusalem in 538 BCE Exodus: deliverance of Israelites from Egypt under Moses’ leadership Zecharias Frankel: Gemara: the second part of the Talmud consisting primarily of commentary on the Mishna. Ghetto: special Jewish quarter in certain European cites Hagar: wife of Abraham, mother of Ishmael, and ancestress of the Muslims Haggadah/Agadah: Halakhah: Jewish legal tradition based on the Talmud Hanukkah: Jewish festival of lights in December, celebrating rededication of the temple in the Maccabean times th Hasidim: popular mystical and devotional Jewish movement beginning in the 17 century in eastern Europe Hasmoneans: Hebrews: ancestors of the Isrealites Henotheism: Theodor Herzl: Samson Raphael Hirsch: Holocaust: ancient Israelite
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