PSYC MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
1. Give 4 examples on identifying Pseudoscience
2. What are the 4 norms of scientific inquiry?
3. What are the 4 goals of scientific research in Psychology?
a. Explain the 3 criteria for causal claims for determining causes of behaviour
4. What is the difference between Basic and Applied Research?
5. Define Theory and explain its 2 functions.
6. Define Hypothesis.
7. What are the 3 core principles of the Tri-Council Policy?
8. Define Variable.
a. What are the 4 type of relationships between variables?
9. What are the 4 categories of variables?
10. What is an Operational Definition?
11. What is the Non-Experimental Method?
12. Explain the Experimental Method.
13. Define Construct Validity.
a. What are 6 indicators of Construct Validity?
14. Explain the 4 measurement scales.
15. Explain the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative.
16. Explain Naturalistic Observation.
a. What are some issues with this?
17. Explain Systematic Observation
a. What are some limitations?
18. What is a Response Bias?
19. What should a researcher consider avoiding with their wording?
20. What should a researcher consider avoiding in their questions?ANSWERS
1. Their statements can’t be falsified, they have lack of self-correction, exaggerated claims, and
overreliance on anecdotes.
2. Universalism: observations are structured and evaluated using accepted methods
Communality: methods and results are to be shared openly so others can replicate the data
Disinterestedness: not motivated by personal gain
Organized skepticism: all new evidence and theories should be evaluated based on scientific
3. Describing Behaviour, Predicting Behaviour, Determining the Causes of Behaviour, and
a. Covariation of cause and effect: when the cause is present, the effect occurs; when the
cause is not present, the cause does not occur
Temporal precedence: cause precedes effect
Alternative explanation: nothing other can the causal variable could be responsible for
the observed effect
4. Basic: attempts to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour
Applied: conducted to address practical problems and potential solutions
5. A system of logical ideas that are proposed to explain a phenomenon and its relationship to
Organize and explain a variety of facts/descriptions of behaviour, and generate new knowledge
by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behaviour.
6. A statement about something that may or may not be true and is waiting for evidence to
support of refute it.
7. Respect for persons (autonomy and rights to leave an experiment), concern for welfare
(minimize risk for people), and promote justice (fairness)
8. An event, situation, behaviour or characteristic that takes more than one value/level
a. Positive Linear: one value increases, so does the other
Negative Linear: increase in one, decrease in the other