HRM822 Final Exam Study Notes

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Department
Human Resources Management
Course
Human Resources Management HRM822
Professor
Dan Mc Garry
Semester
Fall

Description
HRM822 Final Exam Study Notes Exam Breakdown  Part I:Youareprovidedwith 4 questionsandmustanswer3for 10markseach.Relatedto: i. Downsizing ii. Forecasting techniques iii. Outsourcing ofHRfunctions iv. HRauditing/measurement  Part II:RelatedtoJOBANALYSIS.Worth 20markstotal.Youwillbe providedwith an NOCjob description andwillhave to: i. Explainwhyconductingajobanalysisisvital!(5marks) ii. The techniquesthatyou wouldusetoconductajobanalysisfor thisrole.(10marks) iii. The documents that youwouldcreate/constructaftercompleting thejobanalysis.(5 marks)  Part III. Acasestudy.Youwillbe providedwith acase study(taken fromyour text) relatedto bothmergers/acquisitions(M& A’s)andinternationalplacements/culture. Youwillthen answer5questionsworth10markseachrelatedto: i. The risks/benefitsandsuccessratesofM& A’s. ii. The 4 acceptedculturaloutcomesofan M& A. iii. Human Resources‘due diligence’.Whatwouldyou check? iv. The scanning ofexternalfactors.In thiscase whatexternalfactorsshouldhave been examinedandaddressed? v. Stakeholdertheory.In thiscasewhatstakeholderswereinvolvedandhow mightthey have influencedthesuccessand/or failureofthisparticularcase? Exam Hints 1. Pleaseusedarkblue or black ink.Highlighting maybe useful. 2. Do notwriteoutthequestion,we have acopyoftheexampaper. 3. Usebullet points! 4. Yes,neatnessisimportant. 5. Numbereachbook andclearlynumber eachquestion. 6. Ifaquestion isworth 10marksandasksfor,asan example stakeholders,then name 5 stakeholdersandthen brieflydescribe theirimpactor influence. Naming/identifying willearn 1 markandexplaining willearn 1mark. 7. Ifthereare lessthan 5available answers(for exampleculturalresultsfromamerger) then name thepossible outcomesandprovide explanationsofthemwith abriefintroduction and conclusion. 8. Providing reallifeexampleswilloften earn marksandisveryusefultodemonstrate an understanding. 9. JobAnalysis! Downsizing  Downsizing:activitiesundertaken toimprove organizationalefficiency,productivityand/or competitivenessthat affectsthesizeoftheorganization'sworkforce,itscostsanditswork processes  Downsizing often failsasit isnotproperlyplannedor carriedoutin amanner thatreflectsthe organization'sstrategies  Whydoorganizationsdownsize? 1. Labour costsareperceivedastheeasiesttoadjustquickly 2. Declining profit 3. Increasedcompetition 4. Economicdownturn 5. Mergers 6. New technology 7. Reducing operating costs 8. Reducedcashflow 9. Flattening theorganization 10. Getting ridof‘deadwood’ 11. New management/ownership  AlternativestoDownsizing  Cutting non-personnelrelatedcostssuchasbusinessexpenses,advertising,etc.  Cutting personnelrelatedcostssuchasreducing bonuses,wages, benefits.  Reducing the work week.  Providing incentivesfor voluntaryseverancessuchasoffering earlyretirement.  Offering extendedleavesofabsence,sabbaticalsor vacations.  Eliminating overtime.  Implementing worksharing.  Relying on attrition andahiring freeze.  Outsourcing some functions.  Implementing othercostreduction strategies.  BestPracticesin Downsizing  Hands-on involvementprior tothedecision.  Selective in itsapplication rather than ‘acrosstheboard’.  Long-termin focus. Identifyyour organizationalandcompetitive strategiesand advantages  Attackspecificareas. Identifyredundancies,inefficiencies,areasfor technological advancement,outdated/obsolete functions/dutiesandproducts.  Addressthepsychologicalneedsofsurvivors.  Treatthose displacedwith dignityandfairness.  Createsmaller,autonomousteams(the powerof100).  Be proactiveandfocusonperformance  NegativesofDownsizing  Higher ‘quit’rate.  Lessattractive tonew or high potentialrecruits.  Reducedemployee commitment.  Lowerperformance.  Managementmayfixateon restructuring rather thancustomerneedsor rebuilding.  Lessinnovation andrisk taking.  Lowermorale.  Increasedlitigation.  Decreasedattention tosafety.  Decreasedorganizationalreputation Forecasting Techniques  Quantitative Forecasting Techniques  Quantitative techniquesworkbestwhen the environmentisstable andyou have a long-termstatisticalhistorytouse.Theyrequirethecompilation ofhistoricaldataand theuseofsoftwareor someone trainedin statisticalanalysis. Completion maybe lengthy.Requiresdetaileddataon organizationalstaffing,sales,efficiency,etc.  Ratio Analysis:isan quantitativetechnique. An exampleiscomparing therelationship between totalsalesandthe numberofemployeesrequired.  The 5stepsfor conductingaratioanalysisare: 1. Selecttheappropriate trend 2. Trackthetrendovertime 3. Tracktheworkforcesizeoverthe same time 4. Calculate theaverageratioofthetrendtotheworkforcesize 5. Calculate theforecasteddemandfor labour  Regression analysis: another quantitative technique. Itpresupposesthat thereisa relationship between oneor moreindependent(causal)variableswhichthen impact thedependent(target)variable.  For examplethe moregamestheTorontoMapleLeafswin (causalvariable) the more beer your restaurantwillsell(dependentvariable). So youcouldpredict how manystafftoscheduleandtheamountofbeer tostock basedon your prediction abouthow goodtheLeafswillbe.  Trend Analysis:examinestherelationship overtimebetween an operationalindex suchassalesandthedemandfor labour. An examplewouldbe comparing attendance in classtomarksawarded The trendmustbe consistentandhave been in place for some time. Itisquantitative.  HR Budgets:operationalor short termdemandforecasting that requirethe number andtype ofpersonnelrequiredfor eachrole. Itresultsin a‘staffing table’.  Staffing Table:When staffprepare information on the expecteddemandfor labour in theshort-termbasedon basedon currentor expectedlevelsofactivity.Itisbasedon activitylevelsandrepresentsthe totalprojectedHRdemandfor eachrole.  ARecommendedSupplyForecasting Technique  Markov Model:aseriesof matricesthat detailthevariouspatternsof movementtoandfromthejobsin an organization. Itrequirestheuse of historicmobilityrates,whichleadstoaforecastoffuturemovementandfinally thoseareusedtodevelopprograms.  Lists5possible options: 1. remain in currentjob 2. promotion 3. lateraltransfer 4. exitfromthejob/company 5. demotion  The Markov Modelisusefulfor determining: a. thenumberofpersonnelmoveseachyear b. thenumberofexternalhiresrequired c. movementpatterns/careerpathsin theorganization andrequired training d. successratesfor hiresandpromotions  Qualitative Forecasting Techniques  Qualitative SupplyForecasting  Linear Programming:acomplex mathematicalproceduretodetermine the bestsupplymix.  Movement Analysis:usedtoanalyze the ripple effectofpromotions  VacancyModel:analyzespersonnelflow through the organizationbeginning atthetop andmoving down.  Qualitative DemandForecasting →Thesework bestwhen theenvironmentisunstable andor youare introducingnew productsor techniques. Theyoften requiretheuseof ‘experts’. Requiresknowledgeofexternalfactors,stakeholders,etc  Expert Forecasting:usuallythisisconductedbyline managers,HRstaff,senior managementor consultants. These arequalitative techniques.  Scenario/Envelope Forecasting:Projectionssetbyagroup basedon avariety ofassumptions. Usuallydevelop ‘best’and/or ‘worse’casescenarios,theseare theboundariesofthe‘envelope’.  Impact Analysis:Pasttrendsareanalyzedbyexpertsandtheypredictthe probabilityofafutureoutcome.  Qualitative Supply& DemandForecasting  Delphi TechniqueThe expertsdonotmeet sothisreducesthechance of ‘groupthink. Alsotheydo notmeetsothereisnoneedfor travelandtherefore itiseasiertoscheduleandlesscostly. 1. Define theissue orquestion 2. Identifytheexpertsandthetimeline 3. Orientthe experts 4. Issue the firstquestionnaire 5. Summarize theanswers 6. Issue the firstroundsummaryandthesecondroundquestionnaire 7. Compile theanswerstothesecondandissue an opinion basedon the majorityviewpoint. 8. Continue,summarize andreview  Nominal Group:MuchliketheDelphiTechniqueonlythe‘experts’meet. This maycostmorefor travel,etcandmaytakelongertogettheexpertstogether. Alsoone mayoverpowerthe othersor groupthink mayoccur. 1. Define theissue orquestion 2. Identifytheexpertsandthetimeline 3. Issue the demandstatementtotheexperts 4. Expertsconductresearch 5. Expertsmeetbutindividualinteractionsare discouraged 6. Expertsbrainstorm 7. Voteistaken andoutcomesareranked. Outsourcing of HR Functions  Outsourcing: acontractualrelationship for theprovision ofbusinessservicesbyan external provider  WhyOutsource?  Reducecost  Economiesofscale  Accesstospecializedskills/expertise  Harmonizepolicies/proceduresglobally  Accesstoadvancedtechnology  Written/contractualperformance standards  Reduceheadcount/organizationalpolitics  Improvedservice  Focuson strategicvalue addedfunctionsrather than transactionalfunctions  When shouldafunction beoutsourced?  When itis:  Rule based  Repetitive  Frequentlyundertaken  Predictable  Able tobe fullyor partially automated  Able tobe deliveredremotely  Nota‘core’function  Doesnotaddtoorganizationalknowledgeor capabilities  Whynotoutsource?  Costsmayrise asunexpectedevents/demandscropup  Nocontroloverlevelofservice (outside ofcontractedstipulations)  Nocontrolovercontractedstaff  Systemor culturalincompatibilities  Lack offlexibility  Vendor maybecome orassistcompetitors  Impacton employeemorale  Destruction ofinternalculture  Privacyrisks  Reducedcorporate value  Damage tocorporate knowledge base(hollowing out)  Functionsthataremostcommonlyoutsourced  Compensation  Payroll  Benefitsadministration  Compensation administration  Pension administration andinvesting  Training  Training delivery  Training design  Training design anddevelopment  Developmentoftraining policies  Recruitment& Selection  Advertising  Screening ofexternalapplicants  Applicanttesting  Reference checking  Preliminaryinterviews  Exitinterviews  OtherFunctions
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