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[CLAS 1000] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (63 pages long)


Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 1000
Professor
John Walsh
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofG
CLAS 1000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Class*1000 Jan. 20, 2016
Homer Continued
The Iliad and The Odyssey
Homer the guide to how Greeks lived
8Th century BC blind poet
Concluding event of the Trojan War found in other writings
Paris kills Achilles with a bow (which was seen as feminine, looked down upon for
using a bow to kill > should take life face to face)
Apollo guides the arrow to the ankle of Achilles
Philoctetes travels to Troy with Herakles bow to kill Paris
sniper >shadowy figure on the battlefield who operates outside the warrior
code
Greeks would rely on their guile and intellect to take down troy, treachery and
deceit
Intelligence = strength of culture
Build enormous wooden horse as a gift to the Trojans
*Gifts are always problematic in ancient Greek
Trojans are mislead and take the horse into the city as the centerpiece of a party
about their victories
When the Trojans sleep, the Greeks leave the Trojan horse and murder the
residences of troy, opening the gates to the rest of the Greek army
Savage massacre of city, rape and murder
**Small group of survivors escape, those who escape troy found the culture of the
Romans**
The Odyssey
A long poem written as a pneumonic device (predictable pattern of syllables) > used
to help people remember these long poems to repeat them
Odysseus travels home to Greece after the war
His struggles mirror the struggle for civilizations to repair themselves (the long road
home after war)
Wife Penelope waits for him in Ithaca, she represents condition of the world before
war, which is attempting to return back
Penelope is faced with many suitors while her husband is away (the object of male
aggression)
Odysseus has been prevented to get home by Poseidon (who is angry at him)
Cannibals, Sirens (power of female sexuality in Greek culture)
Odysseus was inquisitive, wanted to experience the sirens. Plugged his crews ears,
and tied himself to mast with ears unplugged
Representation of the Greek interest in forbidden knowledge
Him and his crew stopped on the island of lotophagoi (island of the eaters of the
lotus>intoxicating plant)
Greeks had knowledge of drugs, the island of pure sensual delight
Odysseus represents the beliefs to override the pleasures of flesh and body, virtuous
strength to resist temptations (Lotus)
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Class*1000 Jan. 20, 2016
Another famous adventure includes his stop on the Island of the Cyclopes
One eyed Cyclopes symbolic of the one view, of an earlier, primitive culture
Primitive urges, obeying them cause conflict to arise
Odysseus is always curious, investigates the island of Cyclopes and finds a cave
(with his wine)
Within the cave was a supply of food, which they eat because they are hungry > not
hungry, Greeks lived by code called xenia
Greeks lived in independent city-states, but needed to create some kind of
connection
Xenia = mutual hospitality > cultural obligations, guest hospitality which
knits the Greek community together
Odysseus and crew believe the owner with extend this code to them and be
civil
Owner comes home > giant Cyclops
Brutish idea of barbarity
Seals himself, sheep and Odysseus and his men inside the cave
When he sees Odysseus and his men and the fact they ate his food
Kills some of Odysseus men, then eats them
Representation of barbarity
Odysseus and his men plan to kill the Cyclops
Brutish nature = brutish force, jumping into actions shows their primitive
nature
Homer talks about the Greeks intelligence a lot
Odysseus is clever enough to recognize they shouldnt kill the Cyclops,
instead uses the weapon of reason and deception >converses with the
Cyclops
Polyphemos & Outis (Mr. Nobody) have a dialogue
Wine = power of Greek culture, nature of civilization. Overwhelmed the
Cyclops
Culture overwhelms barbaric nature
Drives stake through eye of sleeping Cyclops
Blinded, he is enraged and screams, calling out to fellow Cyclopes (Outis is
hurting me)
Outis = nobody, Nobody is hurting me
Odysseus plan works perfectly
In the morning, Polyphemos sheep want to go outside so he opens the
door, Greek men creep out by attaching themselves to the underside of the
sheep
Leadership and the power of Greek civilization
Insight into the Greek view of life
Polyphemos is the son of Poseidon, causing him to be angry with Odysseus
Island of Aeaea
Opening in forest in centre of island
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