FRHD 1020 Study Guide - Sexual Identity, Sociobiology, Physical Abuse

38 views45 pages
Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 1020
Professor
Gender and Sexuality
Sex-biological characteristics of males and females
Gender- social attitudes and behaviours of males and females
Role- behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Gender Role-behaviour expected of a female or male in a particular culture
Sex Role-behavior defined by biological constraints
Socialization- the process by which people learn characteristics of their
group
Gender Identity- a person’s psychological sense of being male or female
Cross dressers- a member of one gender dresses up in clothes, and other
gender-specific attire to appear to be a member of the other gender
Transgendered persons-a person with the biological sex of one gender who
has the identity or self-concept of the other gender and undergoes
processes and/or procedure to change that sex
Intersexed (Hermaphrodite)
A person who has intersexed sexual organs
A person for who the biological process of sex differentiation has
been nonstandard
Rare-between 1/500 and 1/13000 live births
Causes:
o Chromosomal abnormalities
o Errors of metabolism affecting reproductive hormones
o Exposure to exogenous steroids during fetal development
Gender Roles and Kids
Young kids tend to be more accepting
There are always exceptions to the rule, and it is largely dependent of
how the parents are bringing the children up
Majority of households have certain types of gender stereotypes that
will be taught
Kids who don’t fit in with the norm may feel that there is something
wrong with them, some kids may go through phases even they are not
transgendered but they feel bad
Gender Roles Across Culture
Northern Thailand
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 45 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Kathoey as a third gender
Biological male with feminine social behaviours
o Tom
Biological female who wants to be accepted as and live
like a man
o Samoan Fa’afafine
Biological males who dress and act feminine
Attracted to straight men
Considered a separate category, not seen as men within
society
Why Do Gender Roles Differ?
Sociobiology
o Social behavior results from biological differences
Testosterone and estrogen
Social Learning Theory
o We learn behaviours from our interaction with the environment
o 2 kinds of learning
reinforcement: rewards and punishments
modeling: imitation
Cognitive Development Theory
o How children think and reason changes as they grow older
2 year olds:
5 year olds: have a sense of gender identity
6 & 7 years olds: have achieved gender permanence
Gender Schema Theory
o Children develop a framework of knowledge about what males
and females typically do, then use that framework to interpret
new information
o Gender stereotypes
Gender Socialization
Parental Influences
Fathers and mothers treat their children differently
4 Ways parents socialize their children:
Physical and verbal manipulations:
o What degree children are handled more gently or roughly
Stereotypical gender-identified objects
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 45 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Trucks, dolls, sports equipment
Different verbal descriptions of the same behavior
o Gentle, aggressive, non-competitive
Stereotypical gender-identified activities
o Cooking, cleaning
What Fathers Do
Spend more time with sons than daughters
Are playmates with children (rough and tumble play)
Set higher standards for sons than daughters
Stress feelings and emotions with daughters more than sons
What Mothers Do
Express affection and verbal praise to daughters and sons equally
Stress emotions and feelings with daughters more than sons
Peer Influences
Peers offer important approval or disapproval
Socialize to conform to certain styles of interaction
How girls are influenced
o Dolls
o Appearance
How boys are influenced
o Toughness
o Action figures
Teacher Influences
More attention from teachers for boys
o More likely to be called on
o More likely to be given time to talk
o More likely to be given praise
Boys tend to be louder and more demanding
Better grades for girls, except science, math, and reading by middle
school
o Less likely to be called on
o If incorrect, less likely to be instructed about the correct way
or answer
Work Influences
Occupations dominated by females
o Secretary, receptionist, nurse
Occupations dominated by males
o Construction, engineering, farming
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 45 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Gender- social attitudes and behaviours of males and females. Role- behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status. Gender role-behaviour expected of a female or male in a particular culture. Socialization- the process by which people learn characteristics of their group. Gender identity- a person"s psychological sense of being male or female. Cross dressers- a member of one gender dresses up in clothes, and other gender-specific attire to appear to be a member of the other gender. Transgendered persons-a person with the biological sex of one gender who has the identity or self-concept of the other gender and undergoes processes and/or procedure to change that sex. A person who has intersexed sexual organs. A person for who the biological process of sex differentiation has been nonstandard. Causes: chromosomal abnormalities, errors of metabolism affecting reproductive hormones, exposure to exogenous steroids during fetal development. Young kids tend to be more accepting.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.