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GEOG2210 terms.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 2110
Professor
T.Ryan Gregory
Semester
Winter

Description
Animal liberation- named after Peter Singer’s ground-breaking 1975 book, a radical social movement that aims to free all animals from use by humans, whether those uses are for food, medical testing, industry, personal adornment, entertainment or anything Animal rights- an ethical position and social movement that states that non-human animals, particularly intelligent mammals, should be granted rights as ethical subjects on par or at least similar to human being Anthropocentrism- an ethical standpoint that views humans as the central factor in considerations of right and wrong action in and toward nature (compare to ecocentrism) Birth rate- the measure of natural growth in a population, typically expressed at the number of births per thousand population per year Capital accumulation- the tendency in capitalism for profits, capital goods, savings, and value to flow towards, pool in, and/or accrue in specific places, leading to the centralization and concentration of both money and power Carrying capacity- the theoretical limit of population (animal, human or otherwise) that a system can sustain Collective action- cooperation and coordination between individuals to achieve common goals and outcomes Command-and-control- forms of regulation that depend on government laws and agencies to enforce rules, including such things as regulated limits on pollution or fuel efficiency standards; contrasts with market-based or incentive-based approaches Commodification- the transformation of an object or resource from something values in and for itself, to something values generically for exchange. In Marxist thought, the rise of the exchange value of a thing over its use value Commodity- an object of economic value that is valued generically, rather than as a specific object (example pork is a commodity, rather than a particular pig). In political economy (and Marxist) thought, an object made for exchange Common property- a good or resource (ex. Bandwidth, pasture, oceans) whose characteristics make it difficult to fully enclose and partition, making it possible for non-owners to enjoy resource benefits and owners to sustain costs from the actions of other, typically necessitating some form of creative institutional management Conditions of production- in political economic (and Marxist) thought, the material of environmental conditions required for a specific economy to function, which may include things are varied as water for use in an industrial process to the health of workers to do the labor Conservation- the management of a resource or system to sustain its productivity over time, typically associated with scientific management of collective goods like fisheries or forests (compare to preservation) Constructivist- emphasizing the significance of concepts, ideologies, and social practices to our understanding and making of (literally, constructing) the world Co-production- the inevitable and ongoing process whereby humans and non-humans produce and change one another through their interactions and interrelation Death rate- a measure of mortality in a population, typically expressed as the number of deaths per thousand population per year Deep ecology- a philosophy of environmental ethics that distances itself from “shallow” or mainstream environmentalism by arguing for a “deeper” and supposedly more truly ecologically- informed view of the world Demographic transition model- a model of population change that predicts a decline in population death rates associated with modernization, followed by a decline in birth rates resulting from industrialization and urbanization; this creates a sigmoidal curve where population growth increases rapidly for a period, the levels off Discourse- at root, written and spoken communication; thicker deployments of the term acknowledge that statements and texts are not mere representations of a material world but rather power-embedded constructions that (partially) make the world we live in Domain thesis- arising from the Book of Genesis, the dominion thesis states that humans are the pinnacle of creation; as such, humans are granted ethical free rein to use nature in any way deemed beneficial. Ecocentrism- an environmental ethical stance that argues that ecological concerns should, over and above human priorities, be central to decisions about right and wrong actions (compare to anthropocentrism) Ecological footprint- the theoretical spatial extent of the earth’s surface required to sustain an individual, groups, system, organization; an index of environmental impact Ethics/ethical- the branch of philosophy dealing with morality, or, questions of right and wrong human action in the world Exponential growth- a condition of growth where the rate is mathematically proportional to the current value, leading to continued, non-linear increase of the quantity; in population, this refers to a state of increasingly accelerated and compounded growth, with ecological implications for scarcity Externality- the spillover of a coat or benefit, as where industrial activity at a plant leads to pollution off-site that must be paid for by someone else Fertility Rate- a measure describing the average number of children birthed by an average statistical woman during her reproductive lifetime First contradiction of capitalism- in Marxist thought, this describes the tendency for capitalism to eventually undermine the economic conditions for its own perpetuation, through overproduction of commodities, reduction of wages for would-be consumers, etc., predicted to eventually lead to responses by workers to resist capitalism leading to a new form of economy. Compare to the second contradiction of capitalism Institutions- r
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