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Psychology Leture 15 Notes.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Lisa Giguere

Psychology Lecture 15 Notes Cognitive Psychology (and Language) Oct 30 Cognition: mental activities and processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating info Concept is a mental grouping of similar objects/ events/ states/idea/people Form/ learn concepts - Do not derive concepts from their definitions - Derive from prototypes Prototypes fail us. - When examples stretch our definitions - When boundary between categories of concepts is fuzzy - When examples contradict our prototypes 2.1 Problem solving strategies and natural obstacles to effective problem solving - Trial and error - Algorithms - Heuristics Algorithms - Step by step strategy for solving a problem, methodically leading to specific solution - Aims to guarantee a solution - Quality > speed Heuristics - Mental shortcuts give some guidance how to do a task - Helps generate solutions quickly - Doesn’t guarantee solutions consistently - Speed > quality 2.2 What are some problems solving strategies and natural obstacles to effective problem solving? - Heuristics - Confirmation bias - Fixation Heuristics - Representative heuristic - Judgment based on likelihood
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