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Final

FINAL EXAM-1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Saba Safdar
Semester
Fall

Description
WEEK ONE Psychology - The understanding of mental processes and behaviors by using a scientific approach. HOW IT BECAMEASCIENCE. Aristotle discovered that to understand the human psyche, we must look at it’s bodily manifestations.Added to his theory were two key elements. -Carefully measured observations -Experiments. STRUCTURALISM - Amethod of interpretation and analysis of aspects of human cognition, behavior, culture, and experience that focuses on relationships of contrast between elements in a conceptual system that reflect patterns underlying a superficial diversity.(Titchener) FUNCTIONALISM - Amethod that focuses on the introspection and search for the smallest elements. Focuses on the outcome of mental process and behavior. (James) BEHAVIOURISM -Amethod that focuses on behaviors as the only way to derive general principles of psychology. (Skinner) COGNITIVISM -Amethod that returns to mental processes but uses other approaches than just introspection. (Piaget) WHY DID PSYCHOLOGY BECOMEASCIENCE? -Asearch for mental causes -Introspection is not reliable -Our perceptions of out environment of others and even of ourselves is not reliable -Thus we need a systematic approach to study any topic -Even more important when the topic involves subject experiences. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD GOAL - Understanding a phenomenon, even if it means putting your own ideas aside. STARTS WITH -Attitude -Curiosity -Skepticism -Humility THE STEPS TO ASCIENTIFIC METHOD. OBSERVATION HYPOTHESES -Testable predictions derived from observations and or implied by a theory -Reflects psychology’s focus on (obsession with) the quantification of mental processes and behavior. -Support is not proof THEORY -An explanation for a large number of findings and that can be used to predict behavior or events. DATACOLLECTION ANDANALYSES - Research method - If statistical analyses leads us to conclude that the data supports our hypothesis then the theory is confirmed. - If we conclude that the data does not support our hypothesis, our theory is repudiated SIX PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC THINKING 1. Falsifiability ( Can it be disproved) 2. Replicability (Can results be duplicated by other studies?) 3. Extraordinary claims (Is the evidence as strong as claimed?) 4. Occam’s Razor ( Is there an simpler explanation to fit the data just as well) 5. Ruling out rival hypothesis 6. Correlation VS Causation WEEK 2 DESCRIPTIVE > The observation variables X and Y Case study- Observing and gathering information to complies an in-depth study of one individual Naturalistic observation- recording behavior in the environment without control or manipulation Survey- Amethod of gathering information about many people’s thoughts or behaviors through self report CORRELATIONAL> Is there any association between the variable X and Y Purpose- To observe association between two variables EXPERIMENTAL> Is the variable X having a casual effect on Y MEASURE OF CENTRALTENDENCY Mean> The arithmetic mean ( Sum of scores/some of observations) Median> Half of observations fall on each side Mode> The most frequent observation MEASURE OF VARIATION Range> The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation> Acalculation of the average distance of scores from the mean. FINAL EXAM (POST MIDTERM) Main Types of Learning: 1. Classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction (associative learning)  mere associations 2. Operant Conditioning: changing behavior choices in response to consequences (expectancies)  actions having consequences 3. Cognitive (observational) conditioning: acquiring new behaviours and information through observation and advanced information, rather than by direct experience  only in humans and some primates; don’t have to experience it to learn from it (living vicariously) LEARNING SUBCONCIOUSLY • Behaviourism: started with proponents that mental life was much less important than behaviour as a foundation for psychological science • Based on observation of behaviour How do we learn through associations? • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) won the Nobel prize in 1904 for studying this question • Famous dog and salivation experiment  noticed that dogs salivated at the sound of a bell • Neural stimulus (NS): a stimulus which does not trigger a response • Unconditioned stimulus (US) and response (UR): a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning (food and salivation to food in this case) • Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that will trigger the learned conditioned response • Conditioned response (CR): the learned response triggered by the CS • Before Conditioning: 1. NS (Bell)  no response 2. US (Food)  UR (Dog salivates) • During Conditioning: 1. NS (Bell) and US (Food)  UR (Dog salivates because the dog likes food  doesn’t need to learn this) • After conditioning: 1. CS (Bell means food)  CR (dog salivates) PROPERTIES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1. Acquisition: stage a neural stimulus will change • The association between a NS and US gets acquired • We can tell that the acquisition has occurred because the UR now gets triggered by a CS (and thus becomes a CR) • For the association to be acquired, the NS needs to repeatedly appear before the US  sequence must be: bell, then food 2. Extinction • The diminishing of a CR that occurs when CS is presented without the US • For example, ringing the bell and not bringing food; over time the dog will salivate less 3. Spontaneous Recovery: return of the CR • After extinction and following a rest period, presenting the CS alone often leads to a spontaneous recovery 4. Generalization and discrimination • Generalization: refers to the tendency to have CR’s triggered by related stimuli (dog salivating to the sound of any bell) • Discrimination: refers to the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimuli, preventing generalization (only one bell) 5. OtherApplications • Increasing self esteem through classical conditioning (online game)  the game helps create an association between information about oneself and smiling faces Different Schedules of Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement: • Schedule the reinforcements based on an interval of time that has gone by • Plan for a certain ratio of rewards per number of instances of target behaviour Impact of Fixed vs. Variable Time Intervals • Fixed: slow, unsustained responding; rapid responding near time for reinforcement • Variable: slow, consistent responding Impact of Fixed vs. Variable Ratio • Fixed: high rate of responding • Variable: high, consistent rate of responding; robust, even if reinforcement stops (resists extinction) Types of Punishment: • Punishments make the target behaviour less likely to occur in the future • Positive (additive) punishment: adding something unpleasant (i.e. spanking) • Negative (subtractive) punishment: removing something unpleasant or desired (i.e. taking away a toy)  works better for raising children Operant conditioning • We learn by experiences through operant conditioning • Involves adjusting to the consequences of our behaviours (functionalism) • An act of chosen behaviour (a response) is followed by a reward or punitive feedback from the environment • Results in: reinforced behaviour that is more likely to be tried again and punished behaviour is less likely to be chosen in the future Types of Reinforcement: • Any feedback that makes a behaviour more likely to occur • Positive (additive) reinforcement: adding something desirable • Negative (subtractive) reinforcement: ending something unpleasant Do we need a reward every single time?  NO (Consider casinos; you may lose a million times but the time you win, you feel rewarded and fulfilled) • Continuous reinforcement: the subject acquires the desired behaviour quickly • Partial/intermittent reinforcement: the target behaviour takes longer to be acquired/established by persists longer without reward Conditions that make punishment useful: • Must occur immediately after the behaviour • Consistency is extremely important • Best when combined with positive reinforcement  by itself typically only inhibits the behaviour (suppressed, not forgotten) and fails to provide direction • For humans, an explanation for the punishment • “Intensity” of punishment has little impact on outcome • Physical punishment teaches to respond aggressively  observational learning Options to teach/learn without operant conditioning: Reinforcement Punishment Positive (additive) Increase behaviour by adding Decrease behaviour by adding desired outcome undesired outcome Negative (subtractive) Increase behaviour by Decrease behaviour by removing undesired outcome removing desired outcome Examples: • “You’re playing video games instead of practicing piano so I’m justified in yelling at you!”  Positive punishment • “You’re avoiding practicing, so I’m turning off your game!”  Negative punishment • “I will stop bugging you when I see that you are practicing!”  Negative reinforcement • “After you practice, we can play a game!”  Positive reinforcement Memory • The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval (functions) of information and skills (content)  tying shoes, riding a bike • An individual such as Clive Wearing from theAbyss by Oliver Sacks (a psychologist) who suffers from amnesia is unable to create new memories or storing new memories post incident  in his case, he thinks that the same chocolate is different How do we know something is remembered? • Recall: retrieve information previously learned and unconsciously stored • Recognition: identify which stimuli matches your stored information • Relearning: a measure of how much less work it takes you to learn information you had studied before Key Steps to Remembering: • Encode: the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored through connection made in the brain that allows you to store it • Store: the information is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved • Retrieve: reactivating and recalling the information producing it in a form similar to what was encoded  can remember and access this information How does memory work? 1. Automatic pathway  Some memorable information gets shifted directly into long-term without any thought or effort 2. Effortful pathway  why information is sifted  has a limited capacity and can only be done a limited amount Concentration and Effort Rehearsal (shifts out unimportant details) Event  Sensory memory (sound, smell, etc.) encoding  Short Term (can keep this information for a short span of time in perfect recognition) encoding/ retrieving Long-term memory -SeeAtkinson-Shiffrin model (1968) of memory formation Implicit vs. Explicit Memories: • Bypassing theAtkinson-Shiffrin stages: • Implicit memories: the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don’t “declare” or talk about • Explicit “declarative” memories: facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall; require attention to encode and recall • Put “effort” into memorizing “Encoding”: Automatic Processing  go directly to long-term (implicit) memory • Procedural memory (skating) • Conditioned associations (paired stimuli  unconditioned with a neural) • Information about time, space and frequency (déjà-vu) “Encoding”: Effortful Processing 1. Sensory Memory: perfect recollection of all senses and memory • Very brief recording of sensory information (i.e. Eyes 0.5 sec; Ears3-4 sec; Hands <1sec) • Analogous to an echo or an image, of all the sensations we take in (The professor asks, “What did I just say?”) 2. Short-term/ Working memory: visual-spacial sketchpad • Attention selection of information from sensory memory, sent to short-term/working memory • If not put on the stimulus needed, and event(s) follow, the memory is not committed properly • Short term can hold for 7 +/- 2, for approx 20 seconds Beyond short shortage to working memory: Auditory rehersal  Executive functions  Visospatial “sketchpad” • Auditory: holds information not just to rehearse it, but to process it • Executive: leads to long-term memory • Visospatial: intergrates information from long-term memory with new information coming in from sensory memory; bias to what you see Effortful strategies to improve encoding • Chunking: create groups with the pieces of information; best when these groups are familiar to us; transforming pieces into meaningful chunks (i.e the number 5111983  5- 11-1983 (easier to remember)  511-1983 (even easier to remember)) • Mneumotics: creating links; method of loci (no better method found) i.e. Tying elements to known locations- can tie the information familiar locations to you  “Perception” is in my dresser at home • Heirarchies: divide complex information into concepts, and then sub concepts i.e. Mineral  Metal and precious stones  Metal subvides into: Rare and composites • Rehearsal and distributed practice -Cramming is not an effective use of study time -Spacing effect: best the use the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter sessions -Best strategy: testing effect -When you are sleeping, your brain cleans itself and decides what information to store. Cramming doesn’t allow the brain to do this and cannot remember anything • Deep/semantic processing: more information tied= deeper connections= better recollection How are memories stored for a long period of time? • The brain’s long term memory does not get full (like a hard drive) • It gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected • Estimates of the equivalent of 1000 billion to 100000 billion bits of information (i.e. Chao Lu (China) memorized 67890 decimals of pi TYPES OF MEMORIES: • Semantic: general knowledge (facts, rules, concepts) • Episodic: the event that we arrived (and context) • Procedural: abilities such as playing the piano • Flash (flashbulb): intense long-memory (shocking event that profoundly shapes life) MEMORY PROCESSING IN THE BRAIN: 1. Explicit: semantic (hippocampus) and episodic (working memorycortex) • Encoding and storage of explicit memories • Facilitated by hippocampus  few places able to engage in neurogenesis and thus create new memories • Sleep (only time this works) • Retrieval and use of explicit memories • In part of a working memory or executive function, directed by the frontal lobes 2. Implicit: procedural (basal ganglia) and conditioned (cerebellum) • Basal ganglia, next to the thalamus, controls movement and forms and stores procedural memory and motor skills • Cerebellum forms and stores our conditioned responses (i.e. The stove is hot; you touch the stove and burn your hand; Don’t touch stove again) Emotions and Memory: • Strong emotions, especially stress can strengthen memory formation • Flashbulb memories refer to emotionally intense events that become “burned in” as a vivid-seeing memory (i.e. 9/11) Recall: • When we access our memories, we filter in parts to make our memories more consistent  fill in blanks to our benefit • Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading information in the memory of an event  bias of recollection is associated to the re-storing of that memory • Source amnesia: assigns an event to the wrong source • i.e.Acar accident occurs and the cop asks, “What speed was the car going in the violent crash vs. accident?”  This creates bias on the recollection for that person and their recall is now biased forever Eye-witness testimony: Even if an eye-witness is biased and an expert comes in to testify about that bias, jury still believes the bias Cognitive Psychology and Language Cognition: mental activities and processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating information (and to a certain extent, emotion) • i.e. Some people will say, “I don’t mind trimming off a few years of my life by smoking if that means enjoying more of them!” However, smoking leads to lung problems, lack of activity, etc. and people forget this  lack of cognition Concepts: • We think about concepts, which are mental groupings of similar objects, events, states, ideas and/or people, even abstract forms (knowing that a rock is hard without touching it) • For example, when asked to draw a triangle, people will generally draw an equilateral triangle, because that is the main concept we know of • We form concepts in many ways: 1. Do not derive concepts from their definitions, but rather prototypes some have flexibility 2. Mental images of the best example of a concept within a category 3. Specific examples (i.e. we know that apples are either red, green or yellow, but not blue) When do prototypes fail us? • When examples stretch our definitions (the blue apple) • When the boundary between the categories of concepts is fuzzy (Are tomatoes veggies or fruits?) • When examples contradict our prototypes (Penguins don’t fly; is it a bird?) • We need to think: If asked if a pigeon is a bird, we do not think twice because it fits the prototype of a bird completely Problem Solving Strategies and Natural Obstacles to Effective Problem Solving • Problem solving: thinking in order to answer a complex question or to figure out how to accomplish a goal when the solution or path to the solution is not clear • Well defined vs. ill defined problems  the ability to autonomously solve ill-defined problems using advanced knowledge is why an employer would want to hire you -“I’m cold”  (easy answer) vs. “I need to find a topic for my paper”  (complex answer) HOW TO PROBLEM SOLVE: -Algorithms: • Astep-by-step strategy for solving a problem, methodically leading to a specific solution • Aims to guarantee a solution • Quality > Speed • Military is renowned for this  they have a procedure for everything -Heuristics: • Mental shortcut that gives some guidance on how to do a task • Helps generate solutions quickly • Does not guarantee solutions consistently • Speed > quality • Quickly and efficiently due to past experience • For example, automatic pilot making decisions for you Problem Solving Strategies and Natural Obstacles to Effective Problem Solving: • Representative heuristic -Judgment based on the likelihood of things in terms of similarity or relationship with a particular category • Most of the time, heuristics work well Confirmation Bias: • Human beings want to validate statement by proving twice rather than proving once and disproving once • Tendency to search for information which confirms our current theory, disregarding contradictory evidence • Disprove instead of confirm • i.e. card example where he flipped the cards (the ones with a vowel on one side have an odd number on the other) Fixation: • The tendency to get stuck in one way of thinking, often because of how we understand concepts • Limits our ability to think a problem/situation from a new perspective • i.e. we don’t think a credit card is something we can use to open a door, but it is (extending function of materials from day to day life) • This leads to overconfidence Overconfidence • Tendency to be more confident than correct • Overestimate the accuracy of our estimates, predictions and quantity of knowledge • Why Speed, uncertainty, power 1. Speed: we choose specific brands even if its not the best one because that is what our parents used and what we are used to- it is faster than looking uo every brand to see if it’s the best one 2. Uncertainty: If we are constantly uncertain of our choices, it is inefficient 3. Power:Attribute power to those who seem to know what they’re talking about, even if they have no idea Language: • Use of symbols to represent, transmit and store meaning/information • It is very useful in storing information, sharing information and understanding others. • Linguistic determination: the idea that our specific language determines how we think • i.e.: Hopi and thinking about the past. • It is hard to think about something that there is not a word for  hard to conceptualize  use of adjectives to represent concepts • i.e.: Bilingual participants (Chinese and English) completed a questionnaire in English and in Chinese. The marked cultural differences in self-esteem were much higher in Canada compared to China  NorthAmericans have higher self-esteem than East-Asians • Improves cognitive abilities • i.e. Dr. Wallace Lambert came up with the bilingual education (Immersion) program • The Bilingual advantage: people who are bilingual have a greater number of synapses and greater executive control (such as protects againstAlzheimer’s) Motivation • Aneed or desire that energizes (effortful) behaviour and directs it towards a goal Instinct: • Afixed, rigid and predictable pattern of behaviour • Not acquire by learning and is typically rooted in genes • Human instinct is to seek shelter; female praying mantis instinct is the decapitate male after intercourse What drives us? • Drive: an aroused/tense state related to a physical need • Human drives include: hunger, sex  biological, and belonging • The “push” of biological processes and the “pull” of socio-cultural forces (i.e. een if we are hungry, we won’t eat a stranger’s food) • Drive reduction theory: suggests that we are motivated to restore homeostasis when a drive emerges • Need  Drive  Drive reducing behaviour • Matches perfectly with negative reinforcement WHAT MOTIVATES US? 1. Incentives: rewards • We seek them • We are motivated by learned response-reward pairings • Motivates by attracting the person to the reward as opposed to pushing the person 2. Exploration: • Aneed to either increase or decrease our physiological arousal level to maintain an optimal level of arousal as opposed to eliminating arousal • i.e. once a child can crawl, they will explore everything around them. This helps our survival What motivates us in work contexts? • We have needs for autonomy and a sense of personal competence/efficiency  people want to feel accomplished • Challenge becomes very real in work context  we can get people to increase their performance at work with affecting their well-being through industrial and organizational psychology Beyond Pleasure and Pain • Flow: a state of experience where a person, totally absorbed, feels tremendous amounts of exhilaration, control and enjoyment; when you are one with the activity; when you lose track of time and you get satisfaction from it • This occurs when people push their abilities to their boundaries and in doing so experience a merging of awareness and action • Can occur throughout the spectrum of daily experience, including playing an instrument, painting and sports • Only in humans  we find loss of self-awareness pleasurable • i.e. the Nova Scotian man that wakes up at 5am to go surfing in the winter  we would find this unpleasant but he has the motivation to get up and do this MASLOW; HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • The order is fixed but it is not an accurate representation • It is not quite universal but all humans have a sense of motivation • Believes that we must accomplish the first one to have the second one, and third, etc. • From the bottom up: 1. Physiological: breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion 2. Safety: security of body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property 3. Love/Belonging: friendship, family, sexual intimacy 4. Esteem: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others 5. Self-actualization: morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts BIOLOGICAL NEED; HUNGER 1. Physiological Signs • Stomach contractions • Hypothalamus can monitor blood sugar levels. When they drop, it releases hormones that stimulate appetite • Set point: what you need in terms of resources depending on your activeness (change of rate of metabolism) 2. What food do we seek? • Some tastes preferences are universal carbohydrates (production of serotonin that makes you feel happy/relaxed) • Other tastes are acquired and become favourites through exposure, culture and conditioning  poutine is culturally acquired • Aversions after one incident  if you get sick after drinking orange juice, chances are you won’t drink orange juice again (enhances our ability to adapt) 3. How much do we eat? • “French Paradox”: people in France eat fattier food than NorthAmericans but are generally thinner because of portion sizes • Paul Rozin realized that at McDonald’s, in cookbooks and at the supermarket inAmerica, portion sizes were much larger than in France • Time spent eating was 20 minutes in France vs. 10 minutes inAmerica • Complex and multiple elements shaping even motivation tied to basic needs Social Need: Need to belong • Humans are relatively small so we need to be together to survive (adaptation) • We have a strong, fundamental need to bond with others • Survival requires cooperation • Married people are better off  less health problems • Loneliness is associated with greater risk of psychological and physiological disorders (cancers, cardiac disorders, etc.) • The pain of social exclusion is associated with the activation of the same areas in the brain linked to physical pain  social pain actually hurts • We try to avoid this Can Tylenol reduce social pain? 1. Experiment #1: randomly assigned participants to: • A1000 mg acetaminophen condition or a placebo condition • Measures daily experiences of social pain using a scale with 10 questions which was completed each evening (i.e. “Today I was teased  rate from 1 Not at all to 5 a lot) • Placebo pill was significantly higher over the duration of the experiment • Neuroimaging studies of the affective or unpleasant component of physical pain typically involve brain regions such as the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex and anterior insula  these two places get activated 2. Experiment #2: randomly assign participants to: • Take acetaminophen every day for 3 weeks or take a placebo pill for 3 weeks • Completed a task designed to create social exclusion while undergoing an fMRI scan • Those that took the Tylenol has decreased activation and those that took the placebo pill had increased activation in the dACC and anterior insula, which is the same as physical pain TYPES OF EMOTION; • Bodily arousal: heart pumps faster, sweaty hands, etc. • Conscious experience: thoughts, especially the labeling of the emotion  self- generated/ not self-generated • Expressive behaviour: when we can see (facial expressions) • Experiment: Stanley Milgram sent his grad students to ask for the seat of someone in the subway as the other students observed. They couldn’t so it so Stanley decided to do it himself. When he did, he felt remorse and afterwards, he pretended to have a limp to justify his request. HOW DO EMOTIONS INFLUENCE US? 1. James-Lange theory • Our emotions directly follow the response of our bodies • i.e. the sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulation)  pounding of heart (arousal)  fear (emotion) • Our heart pounds faster in fear and happiness, so which one is it? 2. Cannon-Bard theory • Simultaneous body resonse and cognitive experience • Our emotions occur simultaneously with our body’s response • Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulation)  Pounding heart (arousal) and Fear (emotion) • But how does this fear come about? 3. Schachter-Singer “Two Factor” theory • Emotion= body plus a label • Emotions are the result of the physiological responses and the cognitive appraisal of this response • Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulation)  Pounding heart (arousal) and cognition label “I’m afraid”  Fear (emotion) • Cognition comes before emotions in this case 4. Automatic affective experiences Emotions without cognitive appraisal • Robert Zajoc said that: • Some emotional reactions (fears, likes, and dislikes) develop in a “low road” through the brain and thus skip conscious thought require very little awareness • Guilt and shame are complicated emotions that require “high road” thinking With or without appraisal? • Schachter-Singer highlights the role of appraisal in labeling consciously experienced emotions  simple thoughts • Lazarus: even in emotional responses that operate without conscious thought, “top- down” cognitive functions such as appraisal of stimuli can be involved  advanced thoughts Cognitive appraisal Event Emotional Response Types of Emotions: • High and low arousal • Positive and negative • High arousal/ negative  fear/ anger • High arousal/ positive  enthusiastic • Low arousal/ negative  sad • Low arousal/ positive  relaxed Basic Human emotions • The emotions we can see around culture • Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise Appraisal: choosing how to view a situation • Humans are active agents able to modulate their emotional state  we can change how we feel about something if we want to accomplish something • Requires cognitive effort and practice • Is this a challenge and will I tackle it? • It is overwhelming and will I give up? • The first step is monitoring  we are generally not good at figuring out how we feel • We must recognize the emotions we are experiencing • This is emotional intelligence Closer look at emotions: anger • Anger is an uncontrollable emotion often experienced when we believe we are wronged • The catharsis myth: reduce anger by acting aggressively to release it (AKAventing or “blowing off steam”) • This is counter-productive  there is no reason why anger needs to be vented and this method does not work • It teaches us to act aggressively and often leads to feelings of guilt • We must give it time and it will blow over like any other emotion GUILT V.S. SHAME • Guilt: typically occurs when we think a moral transgression occurred because of our “bad behaviour”  I’m generally a good person, but my action was problematic  motivates reparation • Shame: typically occurs when we think a moral transgression occurred because we are a bad person  often leads to drug abuse  motivates withdrawal Can Hypnotic disgust make moral judgments more severe? • Half of the groups were instructed to feel disgust when reading the word “often” and the other half when reading the word “take” • After participants were brought out of the hypnotic state, they were given a packet of vignettes, ostensibly as part of an unrelated study • For example: second cousins who had a sexual relationship, a man who ate his already dead dog, etc. • Each vignette was written in two versions but meant the same thing: one with “often” and one with “take” • Then they randomly assigned participants to hypnotic disgust trigger word present condition and hypnotic disgust trigger word not present (control condition) • Rating of disgust and immorality were higher in those that were hypnotized • Results suggest that moral judgment can be made more severe by the presence of a flash of disgust • Illustrate that emotions can sometimes have an impact on our cognitions  heart and mind work together Personality: • An individual’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that persist over time and across situations  i.e. we know the personality traits of the 7 dwarves (Dopey= naïve) Psychodynamic and analytic perspectives on personality • Angel and devil on the shoulder  Freud • Inner forces that interact to make us who we are • Personality develops in a dynamic (changing over time) interplay between conscious and unconscious processes Freud (1856-1939) • Medical doctor of which many of his patients had no symptoms. They were also very rich individuals • Change of perspective: physical symptoms could be caused by purely psychological factors • Fascinated by our unconscious (without our awareness) • Formulated a theory of the structure of personality and its development • They theory and his therapeutic technique were named psychoanalysis Freud’s Iceberg Analogy • Personality develops from the efforts of our ego (mediator that tries to find acceptable medium of drives and moral
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