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Cognitive Psychology Midterm 3 notes.docx

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PSYC 2650
Anneke Olthof

Cognitive Psychology Midterm 3 Chapter 10 Organization of Language -at basic level, involves translating thoughts into series of sounds that can be spoken -listener then converts series of sounds back into thoughts -language has a hierarchical organization that allows these translations between thought and sound Sentence – coherent sequence of words that express meaning Word – smallest free form in a language Morpheme – smallest unit of sound that can carry meaning Phoneme – smallest unit of sound that can distinguish words -this organization is hierarchical because sentences are composed of words, words are composed of morphemes, and morphemes are composed of phonemes Phonology -produced by modulating flow of air from lungs to the mouth and nose, can be classified according to features Voicing -whether vocal folds vibrate z, d, b, v -or not s, t, p, f Manner of production -whether air is fully stopped b, p, d, t -or merely restricted z, s, v, f Place of articulation -where in the mouth the air is restricted: -closing of lips b, p -top teeth against bottom lip v, f -tongue behind upper teeth d, t, z, s -speech perception is complicated by the fact that there are no gaps in between phonemes or words -speech segmentation: process of “slicing” the speech stream into words and phonemes -co-articulation: how the production of each phoneme is slightly altered depending on the preceding and following sounds, as a result, no particular acoustic pattern corresponds to a phoneme such as s, the pattern is different in different contexts -do not only rely on stimuli we receive, we supplement this input with prior knowledge and words and the contexts in which they appear, demonstrated with: -phonemic restoration effect: we “hear” phonemes that are not actually present in the stimulus if they are highly likely in context -categorical perception: our categorization of phonemes shows abrupt boundaries, even when there is no corresponding abrupt change in stimuli -phonology is also concerned with sequences of phonemes that are acceptable in language, i.e. tl is not accepted in English -other rules govern the adjustments that must occur when certain phonemes are uttered in sequence, i.e. s sound becomes a z in words like bags Words for each word that a speaker knows, there are several kinds of info: Phonology: sequence of phonemes that make up the word Orthography: how the word is spelled Syntax: how to combine the word with other words Semantics: what the word means -our syntactic knowledge about a word includes whether it requires a direct object (i.e. put) or cannot take one (i.e. sleep) -referent: the actual object, action, or event in the world that a word refers to -a large part of “knowing a word” is knowing the relevant concept, so the same complexities of conceptual knowledge that we have previously encountered also apply to words and semantics -morphological knowledge specifies how to create variations of each word by adding appropriate morphemes i.e. hack, hacker, hacking, hacked, this is an example of languages generativity – the capacity to create an endless series of new combinations, all built from the same basic set of units Syntax generativity is also a fundamental property of how words are combined in phrases and sentences -if you know 40,000 words and we limit a sentence to 20 words, they’re 10 possible sequences of words -for practical purposes, there are an infinitely large number of sentences that speakers can produce in their language -syntax also provides rules that specify the kinds of sequences of words that are acceptable -these rules also help us determine the relationships among the words in the sentence, for instance, who was doing the chasing in the sentence -Lewis Carroll’s poem “Jabberwocky” illustrates that sentences can be syntactically and morphologically correct, even when meaningless -one kind of syntactic rule is a phrase-structure rule, a constraint that governs the pattern of branching in a phrase-structure tree -one such rule specifies that a sentence must contain a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) -note that the rules that we are describing for language are DESCRIPTIVE rule, or rules that characterize the language as it is ordinarily used by fluent speakers -in contrast, PRESCRIPTIVE rules are standards for how language “ought” to be used i.e. the rule against splitting infinitives -phrase-structure approaches also make a distraction between competence and performance competence: refers to language knowledge that might be revealed under ideal circumstances performance: refers to the actual behavior of a speaker/listener, including errors, under normal circumstances -often the words of a sentence are compatible with more than one phrase structure, as in “he wants to discuss sex with jay leno” d-structure: refers to the underlying and abstract structure of a speaker’s intended meaning in uttering a sentence -many linguists believe that there are aspects of deep structure that are shared across all human language -such linguistic universals are rules or structural properties that apply to every human language -innate knowledge of these universals may prepare children for learning language rapidly Sentence Parsing -when we perceive a sentence, we must parse the sentences syntactic structure, or assign the words to a phrase structure -a garden-path sentence initially suggests one interpretation, which turns out to be wrong i.e. fat people eat accumulates -knowledge of syntax guides us in parsing sentences -the principle of minimal attachment leads the listener to choose the simplest phrase structure that will accommodate the words heard so far -knowledge of semantics also guides us in parsing sentences -whether a sentence is semantically reversible provides a cue to the relationship among the words in the sentence extra linguistic context: refers to factors outside of language itself i.e. the sentence “pour the apple on the towel into the box” is a garden-path sentence, unless the sentence is uttered with the appropriate visual context -prosody refers to the patterns of pauses and pitch changes that characterize speech production, it is used to: -emphasize elements of a sentence -highlight the sentence’s intended structure -signal the difference between a question and an assertion pragmatics: refers to knowledge of how language is ordinarily used i.e. well the dog sure does look happy The Biological Roots of Language -two brain regions classically associated with language are: broca’s area, associated with nonfluent aphasia wernicke’s area, associated with fluent aphasia -another symptom displayed by people with aphasia is anomia, the inability to name objects, caused by a disruption to the mental dictionary Specific language impairment (SLI): developmental disorder in which children of normal intelligence and normal muscle movement ability have difficulty with learning and using language -another suggestion that the learning of language proceeds through specialized mechanisms is the pattern of errors made by kids Over-regularization errors, for instance, suggest that kids do not learn language based solely on imitating what they hear -learning of info present in the environment is also critical to language acquisition -children as young as eight months are sensitive to the statistical regularities in the language that they hear, as shown in studies employing nonsense syllable streams -kids learning language may use the developing knowledge they have of syntax, semantics, phonology, prosody, etc., to scaffold learning in the other areas Semantic bootstrapping: refers to using semantic knowledge to make inferences about the syntactic structure of a language Language and Thought -linguistic relativity is the hypothesis that people who speak different language think differently -a language’s color categories may affect how its speakers perceive and remember color -the spatial terminology of a language – for instance whether absolute or relative terms are used – may affect how its speakers perceive and remember spatial info -one possibility for such results is that the language you speak determines the concepts and categories that you use, and as a result shapes what you can think about -a softer possibility is that language influences what we pay attention to, and this shapes experience, which influences how we think Chapter 11 Visual Imagery -a variety of day-to-day problems seem to require the use of visual imagery how many windows are in your apartment? was David in class yesterday? will this sweater look good with your blue pants? -what is the nature of these mental images? -francis galton used the method of introspection to study mental imagery, his participants’ self-reports suggested that they could inspect their images in much the same way as a picture, the participants also differed widely in the amount of detail their mental images seemed to contain -studies of visual imagery in the last fifty years have avoided introspection and instead ask participants to do something with their images – to read info off them or manipulate them in some way Chronometric studies: measure the amount of time requires by a cognitive process of interest -Kosslyn asked participants to answer yes/no q’s about their mental images findings: -if they imagined a cat, they were faster to confirm that cats have heads, compared to confirming that cats have claws -the reverse was true is they were asked to think about cats, not to image them -this suggests that as the mode of representation changes, so does the pattern of info available Image-scanning procedure studies mental imagery also, Kosslyn et. Al – first asked participants to memorize map, they were then asked to mentally scan from one landmark to another on the imagined map -the time it took to scan the image corresponded to the distance on the map -thus, mental images seem to preserve the spatial layout and geometry of the represented scene -the mental rotation task: also suggests that mental images preserve spatial info in three dimensions, in each pair, are the objects identical, despite being viewed from different perspectives -the data from this task suggest that the greater the angle of rotation between the 2 pictures, the longer the response time -it is as if the participants are rotating their mental images of the two objects into alignment -did the image-scanning and mental-rotation experiments have demand character, or cues that signaled to the participants how they were “supposed to behave” by the experimenter? -these two results are observed even without instruction to use imagery, suggesting that participants spontaneously form mental images and scan them -mental imagery seems to use perceptual mechanisms -visual imagery interferes with detecting dim visual stimuli, and auditory imagery interferes with detecting quiet tones -interference between imagery and perception occurs when we try to visualize one thing while perceiving another -however, if we are imagining a stimulus related to the one we are about to perceive facilitation occurs -neuroscience data also support the link between perception and imagery the same occipital areas used for early visual processing are activated during visual imagery patients with unilateral neglect may also neglect the left side of space in their mental images disrupting visual-processing areas with transracial magnetic stimulation (TMS) also disrupts mental imagery -research also demonstrates a functional equivalence between aspects of visual imagery and visual perception -for instance, studies of visual acuity measure how close two dots can be to each other and still appear distinct -for both perception and imagery, acuity is greatly reduced if the dots are not in the center of vision -people who have been blind since birth also demonstrate the same effects in mental- rotation or image-scanning tasks, with response time being proportional to the distance traveled, so we need to distinguish between visual imagery and spatial imagery -spatial imagery may be based in movement or body imagery, or it may be abstract and not tied to any one sense -individual differences in the ability to form mental imagery also suggest a distinction between visual and spatial imagery -self-reported “vivid imagers” perform no differently than “non-imagers” on tasks that depend on spatial imagery, yet vivid imagers are better on tasks that specifically require visual imagery -some researchers believe that five percent of all kids have what is known as eidetic imagery, an extremely detailed form of visual memory -in some critical ways, our mental images are different from pictures -recall that although a picture may be ambiguous, our perception of the picture is not neutral -perception “goes beyond the information given” to organize and interpret the image, making it unambiguous -similarly, mental images correspond to these interpretations, not to the ambiguous images Visual Imagery For instance, if participants view an ambiguous image like the Necker cube, they will only be able to imagine whichever interpretation they initially perceived -similarly, although people can see both a duck and a rabbit in this figure, once they have imagined the duck, they will have difficulty reinterpreting the mental image as a rabbit -thus, images (like percepts) are organized depictions -one way to think about mental images is as a package that includes the depiction itself as well as a perceptual reference frame -for instance, the duck/rabbit image, understood as a duck, is associated with the reference frame “facing to the left -sometimes putting an idea down on paper can help make a discovery that requires a change in the reference frame Summary of Visual Imagery -Mental images provide a distinctive means of representing the world compared to a verbal description -Mental images are like pictures in that spatial layout and geometry are preserved -However, they are different from pictures in that they reflect perceptual interpretation and are associated with reference frames Long-Term Visual Memory So far we have discussed images that have been recentl
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