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Short Answer For Cognitive Psychology Exam.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Short Answer ForCognitivePsychologyExam Framing Effects  Different choices are made amongthesamealternativesdependingon howalternativesare stated or “framed” Example:Disease that will kill 600people. Alternative A:Save 200lives. Alternative B:1/3probability thatall600willbesaved and a2/3probabilitythatnoonewillbe saved. Same Problem… Alternative C:400people will die. (same asA) Alternative D: 2/3 probability thateveryonewilldieand a1/3probabilitynoonewilldie.(same asB)  Framing in termsof losses makesdecision makerstendtoberisk seekinginhopesofavoiding /reducing the loss(die)  If frame isin termsof gains,decision makestendtoberisk adverseand choosetoholdtight to whatever they already have (saves)  No right or wrong answer butthe waythequestion isworded changesourdecision  What treatmentdoctorwillchoosedependsonwhether treatment isworded intermsofodds of living vs.oddsof dying  People often make choices based onwhat would beeasiest tojustify o When we cannot justify,wenormallychooseneither o Relies on confirmation biasand heuristics(decision that reflectsyour beliefs and ison representative moments) Wason Selection Task Deductive Reasoning:conclusionswe can makewithcertaintyfromthepremises Affirmation ofthe Antecedent: If A then B. A. Therefore, B.  Can concludethiswith certainty  Normally pretty good atthis  A.k.a.modusponens Denialof the Consequent:
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