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SOC1500 - Final Exam Review.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 1500
Professor
Mavis Morton
Semester
Fall

Description
Soc1500 Final Exam Review Public Order Crimes – Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes- act interfere with public order, such as loitering for the purposes of prostitution Immoral acts become crimes if they are harmful to the public Vigilante- someone who takes the law into their own hands Moral Crusades- efforts by interest groups to stamp out behaviour they find objectionable Moral Entrepreneurs- interest groups that attempt to control social life and the legal order for the purpose of promoting their own personal set of moral values Paraphilia- abnormal sexual practices that may involve recurrent sexual urges focused on objects, humiliation, or children Prostitution- the buying and selling of sex – not illegal in Canada Brothels- a house of prostitution, typically run by a Madam (a woman who runs the brothel) Call Girls- prostitutes who make dates via the phone and then service customers in hotel rooms or apartments Pornography- the exploitation of women and children for male pleasure Obscenity- sexually explicit material that appeals to the prurient interest of the viewer Decriminalization- the reduction or elimination of the penalty for a criminal act Temperance Movement- an organized effort to prohibit the sale of liquor, largely seen as unsuccessful, prohibition was a failure Most Widely Used Drugs: Aesthetics (PCP), Volatile liquids (lighter fluid), Barbiturates (sleeping pills), Tranquillizers, Amphetamines (meth), Cannabis (marijuana), Hallucinogens (LSD), Cocaine, Narcotics (morphine), Steroids, and Alcohol Designer Drugs- chemical substances made and distributed in relatively small batches for the purpose of inducing mood-altering effects Claims makers- people in a position to significantly influence the social construction of crime images in the media Problems with the Law: might be too strict; reflect conservative standards not accepted by the majority, based on outdated morality Utilitarianism: Kantian Philosophy- Jeremy Bentham’s “Greatest Happiness Principle”- control through pain and pleasure, ethical hedonism, and felicific calculus Moral rightness or wrongness of an adaptation is a function of the amount of pleasure or pain that is produced John Stuart Mill on Liberty: 2 mechanisms of the control of authority- necessary rights belonging to citizens, and representative parliament- people will not tyrannize themselves Problems with Democracy: representation and tyranny of majority- the harm principle (solution) 3 Basic Liberties: Freedom of thought and consciousness, freedom to pursue tastes (opinions, beliefs), freedom of assembly and association Benefits of Freedom of Expression: prejudicial beliefs are looked at as ‘the price paid for an inestimable good’ 3 Types of Belief: wholly false, partly, and wholly true Benefit to Common Good: we don’t know if it is true or false until expressed, if it is in error, it could be partly true and the collision of adverse opinions might produce the whole truth Benefits of Individuality: it is a pre-requisite for creativity and diversity Limits of Authority: Relating to harm, it is the consequences or irrational conduct, rather than the conduct itself that should be punished Education helps society ensure that a generation as a whole is generally moral Reaction Offensive Action: those who are offended by an action should simply cease to socialize with those who commit the action Utility of Such Freedom: this brings people to the good more effectively than physical, emotional, or financial coercion Policy Implications: 2 principles- individual is not responsible to the society so long as their action doesn’t harm society, and those actions that harm society must be punished in accordance with the principles of democracy and fair justice Harm Prevention: we must prevent harm; we must also do so with an eye of whether that which can cause harm does so exclusively, we must warn the unaware person, taxation Source Control- destroying overseas crops and arresting members of drug cartels How We Know What We Know – Lecture Miller’s theory of lower-class culture and delinquency: a distinct set of values exist in the lower-class, include toughness, excitement, and trouble Testing Miller’s Theory: 1) research question 2) hypothesis 3) data and analysis Crime of Power – Chapter 12 Sutherland: conspiracies by the wealthy to use their position for personal gain without regard to the law Consequences: violate trust, lower social morale Modern Definition- the illegal or unethical acts that violate fiduciary responsibility or public trust, committed by individual or organization, usually during the course of legitimate occupational activity by persons of high or respectable social status for person or organizational gain Exploring White Collar Crime: 4 categories- corporate, government, occupational, organized/professional Victims: public, organization that employs the offender, competing organizations 4 Components (Edelhertz): ad-hoc violation- committed for personal profit. Abuse of trust- committed against an organization. Collateral business- committed to protect business. Con games- committed to cheat clients Causes of White Collar Crime: Neutralizing- because everyone does it then it cannot be bad. Rationalization- society had developed for white-collar crime, allows offenders financial needs to be met without compromising their values Theories of White-Collar Crimes: Cultural Deviance Theory- excessive demand coupled with culture of tolerance, social learning theory, and strain theory- corporations stated goal is in conflict with legal business means Attitude towards Government: a positive working relationship with governmental overseers will reduce the need for a secret culture that fosters illegal behaviour as it invites scrutiny Lack of Internal Control- shaming, encouraging whistle blowers, encouraging inter-corporate cooperation Hirschi + Gottfredson- disagree with the cultural theories it’s the result of low self-control, self-control in a variable that interacts with need and opportunity to produce white-collar crimes Leniency towards White Collar Crimes: Causes of Leniency- conflict theories, public humiliation as punishment, personal identification by judges and prosecutors, law is seen as unfair, use of civil court Compliance Strategies- aim for conformity without the necessity of detecting or penalizing violators focus on self-policing, evaluation. Economic sanctions don’t work- latent functions, cost to consumer, and cost to shareholders, maybe insignificant. Difficult to achieve to free market, resources available to corporations make them hard to prosecute, deterrence, severity, certainty, celerity Enterprise crimes- illegal acts of opportunity that involve breaking regulatory rules but not personal victimization for the purpose of financial gain White Collar Crime- capitalize on a person’s status in the marketplace, including embezzlement, fraud, market manipulation, restraint of trade, and false advertising Green Criminology- the study of crimes against the environment, usually for profit. Forms: illegal logging, wildlife exports, fishing, dumping, and polluting Cybercrime- use computer technology both for illicit gain, such as a fraud, and for moral crimes such as child pornography and stalking Organized Crime- committed by a gang, such as drug trafficking. Characteristics: 1) is a conspiratorial activity 2) has economic gain as its primary goal 3) activities often work through legitimate activities 4) employs predatory tactics 5) disciplines its members 6) is not synonymous with the stereotypical mafia 7) doesn’t include terrorists Alien Conspiracy Theory- view that organized crime was imported from Europe and that crime cartels restrict their membership to people of their own ethnic background Occupational Crime- committed by employees for personal gain using the structural advantage provided by their employment Grouped into 4 Categories: 1) Corporate- legitimate companies commit crime in the course of their usual business fostered by a strongly competitive environment 2) Government- committed either by a government officials or with their knowledge and support, as well as cover-ups of other person’s crime 3) Occupational- people making extra money by bending/breaking rules, perhaps because of business related problems 4) Organized/Professional- people or groups of people whose primary source of income is illegal White-Collar Crimes- 4 Categories: 1) Ad-hoc Violations- committed for personal profit, such as welfare or tax fraud 2) Abuses of Trust- committed against an organization, such as embezzlement/bribery 3) Collateral Business Crimes- committed to protect business, such as concealing pollution 4) Con Games- committed to cheat clients, such as fraudulent land sales or bogus securities Chiselling- cheating an organization or its customers Swindling- stealing through deception by individuals who try to bilk people out of their money Churning- a stock-broker makes repeated trades to fraudulently increase their commissions Insider Trading- illegal buying of stock in a company on the basis of info provided by someone in the company Arbitrage- the practice of buying large blocks of stock in companies that are believed to be the target of corporate buyouts or takeovers 2 Major Types of Internet Securities Fraud: 1) Market Manipulation 2) Fraudulent offerings of securities Corporate Crime- a legal violation by a corporate entity, such as price-fixing Corporate Culture Theory- crime occurs when obedience to subculture norms and values causes people to break the rules of conventional society Pilferage- theft by employees through stealth or deception Price-Fixing- companies conspire together to artificially inflate the price of goods. 4 forms: predation, identical bidding, dividing territory, and rotational bidding Self-Control Theory- variable that interacts with need and op
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