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EOSC 114 Study Guide - Principle Of Faunal Succession, Torino Scale, List Of Solar System Objects


Department
Earth and Ocean Sciences
Course Code
EOSC 114
Professor
Stuart Sutherland

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General Extinction
Biostratigraphy: analysis of the earth’s stratified layers to uncover
evidence based from fossils
Principle of superposition: rock layer at the bottom of the pile will
be the oldest; top layer = youngest
Principle of faunal succession: strata of like age can be recognized
by fossils they contain even if they are separated by a large
distance
o (faunal means animals and plants of a particular region)
Subdivisions of Time:
Eons
Eras
Peroids
Phanerozoic emergence of creatures with hard parts
Base of periods defined on emergence or radiation of new species
Base of Mesozoic and Cenozoic emergence of new species
following mass extinction
Mass Extinction:
30% of earth’s species gone
broad range of ecologies
within 1 mill years
Biological cause of mass extinction
Competition
Excessive predation
Pathogens

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Earth based cause of mass extinction
Change in continent configuration
o Climate
o Ocean cyclinity
o Sea level weather patterns
o Greater the landmass = lower the diversity
Changes in the atmosphere
o Greenhouse warming and shit
Extraterrestrial impacts cause of mass extinction
Permo-Triassic Extinction
95-98% of all species extinct
continental config: drop in biodiversity
sea floor spreading slowed down: sea level dropped fucked over
shallow habitats
climate got drier and more drought because of large landmass
Siberian traps: lot of volcanic activity acid rain
Meteor strikes.
anoxia
a lack of oxygen
atmosphere
layer of gases surrounding the lithosphere
biodiversity
the number of different species
biosphere
global sum of all ecosystems

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biostratigraphy
correlation of rocks using fossils
Cambrian
oldest period of the Phanerozoic / Paleozoic
Cenozoic
the most recent grouping of geological periods in the Phanerozoic
correlation
matching geological sections that might be separated by large distances
Cretaceous
youngest period of the Mesozoic
Terms
Cross-Cutting Relationships
Page 15 of 42
method of deduction of relative age of geological sections
Cuvier, George
established concept of extinction
Deep Time
understanding the extreme age of Earth
Devonian
geological period in the Paleozoic
Earth System Science
understanding Earth as an interaction of many systems (spheres)
ecosystem
a collection of living organisms that interacts with the Earth System
evolved/evolution
theory to explain biodiversity and emergence of new species
extinct/extinction
death of every member of a species
Faunal Succession
change in fossil species over time
flood basalt
basalt lava produced by large scale volcanic activity
foraminifera
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