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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Well-defined group of cell bodies
{
Each nucleus/layer has a particular function
{
Difference in staining can come from size of cells, how densely packed they are in the
layers
|
In layers -presented as layers
{
In nuclei -stand alone as an 'island' among the tissue
{
Layers or Nuclei
{
Aka fiber pathway
{
{
Examples: Corticospinal Tract, Optic Tract
{
Within CNS; distinct from nerves
{
Tract
{
Fibers and fiber pathways that enter and leave the CNS
{
In the periphery
{
After entering the CNS, are called tracts
{
Examples: Auditory Nerve, VagusNerve
{
Nerves
{
Layers, Nuclei, Nerves, and Tracts
Olfaction
Develops further to form telencephalonand diencephalon-includes thalamus
Prosencephalon(front brain)
|
Vision and hearing
Mesencephalon(middle brain)
|
Movement and balance
Spinal cord considered part of hindbrain
Further develops into metencephalon(includes enlarged cerebellum) and
myelencephalon
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
|
Three regions of developing brain
{
Slide 27
{
Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain develop into adulthood
{
The Origin and Development of the Central Nervous System
Hollow pockets within the brain filled with CSF come from hollow neural tube
{
Lateral ventricles (first and second)
|
Third and Fourth ventricles extend into the brainstem and spinal cord
|
Numbered 1-4
{
Ventricles
{
Slide 28
Receives fibers from afferent sensory receptors
{
Sends efferent fibers to control muscles
{
Cervical (8)
|
Thoracic (12)
|
Lumbar (5)
|
Sacral (5)
|
30 spinal cord segments divided into four regions
{
Segments (dermatomes) encircle spinal column
{
The spinal cord
Dorsal Root: afferent fibers carrying sensory information to the brain
{
Ventral Root: efferent fibers carrying motor information to the body
{
Spinal vertebrae are reversed: gray matter on inside (cell bodies are here) white matter on the
{
Slide 30
Organisation of the Nervous System (cont'd)
January-14-10
1:06 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Spinal vertebrae are reversed: gray matter on inside (cell bodies are here) white matter on the
outside
{
Slide 31
Francois Magendie and Charles Bell
{
Principle that the dorsal part of the spinal cord is sensory and the ventral part of the spinal
cord is motor
{
Bell-Magendie Law
{
Damage is lower down, legs lose function
{
Paraplegic
{
Spinal cord cut higher up so arms lose function as well
{
{
Quadriplegic
{
Fibers of spinal tracts do not regrow in adult mammals
{
Spinal-Cord Function and the Spinal Nerves
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaAgefJ8Gkg
{
Spinal cord capable of complex actions
{
Movements dependent only on spinal-cord function
{
Specific movements elicited by specific stimuli
{
{
Reflexes
{
Spinal-Cord Function and the Spinal Nerves
Somatic nervous system -monitored and controlled by CNS
{
12 pairs, overseen by the brain
{
Can have afferent functions, efferent functions, or both
{
Cranial Nerves
{
Connections Between Central and Somatic Nervous System
Slide 35**
Arouses the body for action
|
^&]PZ}&o]PZ_
|
Spinal nerves in the thoracic and lumbar regions are connected to the sympathetic
ganglia(collections of nerve cells that function like a primitive brain)which in turn
control the internal organs
|
Energy goes to periphery
|
Sympathetic
{
Calms the body down
|
^Zv]P_
|
Connected to sacral region
|
Vagus nerve (calms most of internal organs)
Facial nerve (controls salivation)
Oculomotor nerve (controls pupil dilation and eye movements)
Greater part derives from three cranial nerves:
|
Connects with parasympathetic ganglianear target organs
|
Parasympathetic
{
Pain in these organs is perceived as coming from the outer parts of the dermatome -
referred pain
|
Internal organs appear not to have own sensory representation
{
Two Divisions
{
Autonomic Nervous System Connections
Slide 37
Diencephalon
{
Three regions
{
The Brainstem
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Organisationof theNervous System(contd) January-14-10 1:06PM Layers,Nuclei,Nerves,andTracts { LayersorNuclei { Well-definedgroupofcellbodies { Eachnucleuslayerhasaparticularfunction { Inlayers-presentedaslayers Differenceinstainingcancomefromsizeofcells,howdenselypackedtheyareinthe layers { Innuclei-standaloneasan islandamongthetissue { Tract { Akafiberpathway { LargecollectionofaxonsprojectingtoorawayfromalayerornucleuswithintheCNS { Examples:CorticospinalTract,OpticTract { WithinCNS;distinctfromnerves { Nerves { FibersandfiberpathwaysthatenterandleavetheCNS { Intheperiphery { AfterenteringtheCNS,arecalledtracts { Examples:AuditoryNerve,VagusNerve TheOriginand DevelopmentoftheCentralNervous System { Slide27 { Threeregionsofdevelopingbrain Prosencephalon(frontbrain) Olfaction Developsfurthertoformtelencephalonanddiencephalon-includesthalamus Mesencephalon(middlebrain) Visionandhearing Rhombencephalon(hindbrain) Movementandbalance Spinalcordconsideredpartofhindbrain Furtherdevelopsintometencephalon(includesenlargedcerebellum)and myelencephalon { Forebrain,midbrainandhindbraindevelopintoadulthood Slide28 { Ventricles { HollowpocketswithinthebrainfilledwithCSF comefromhollowneuraltube { Numbered1-4 Lateralventricles(firstandsecond) ThirdandFourthventriclesextendintothebrainstemandspinalcord Thespinalcord { Receivesfibersfromafferentsensoryreceptors { Sendsefferentfiberstocontrolmuscles { 30spinalcordsegmentsdividedintofourregions Cervical(8) Thoracic(12) Lumbar(5) Sacral(5) { Segments(dermatomes)encirclespinalcolumn Slide30 { DorsalRoot:afferentfiberscarryingsensoryinformationtothebrain { VentralRoot:efferentfiberscarryingmotorinformationtothebody { Spinalvertebraearereversed:graymatteroninside(cellbodiesarehere)whitematteronthe www.notesolution.com
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