Final Reading Notes 2.docx

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Ivanka Knezevic

Final - Notes Have You Come a Long Way, Baby? Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Sexism in 2008 Campaign Coverage Diana B. Carlin & Kelly L. Winfrey - Analysis of media coverage reveals that lingering sexism toward women candidates gendered stereotypes - Negative coverage of both candidates  coverage has potential to cast doubt on woman’s suitability to be commander-in-chief or in the wings - Double-bind: women who are considered feminine will be judged incompetent, and women who are competent, unfeminine… who succeed in politics and public life will be scrutinized under a different lens from that applied to successful men Gender Stereotypes - Four common stereotypes of professional women: o Seductress or sex object  Refer to both sexuality and sex roles  Clothing and appearance – being seen as a sex object  Behaving or speaking in “feminine” ways – being victim of sexual harassment o Mother  Women viewed as more caring and understanding, compassionate  Women tend to represent change  Woman’s ability to perform leadership role is questioned because of her maternal responsibilities  Mother frame may involve images of scolding, punishment, or shrewish behaviour o Pet/Child  Woman is “symbolically taken along on groups events as mascot – a cheerleader for shows of prowess”  Seen as too weak, naïve, or unprepared to handle a difficult task without a man’s help  childlike treatment and diminishes a woman’s capacity to fulfill leadership functions o Iron maiden  Too many masculine traits are often ridiculed and lose trustgoing against type of play into male political stereotypes that voters are rejecting Gendered Media Coverage - Media framing: o Weaver, McCombs & Shaw : that focus on how issues and other objects of interest are reported by news media as well as what is emphasized in such reporting o Language choice  stereotypical language used when discussing or describing professional women  Describing women in sexist terms reduces their credibility or may cause them to be seen as less human  Animals terms focus on appearance and sexuality of young women (foxy), as women grow older or as seen as too aggressive – called barracuda, old bat, shrew, or cow Objectifying Palin and Clinton - Palin’s attractiveness resulted in frequent and varied references to her “sexiness” o Emphasis on her physical appearance began when news sources revealed she has participated in beauty pageants  used to dismiss her as a serious candidate o Discuss her fashion choices  emphasis on women as sex objects - Clinton viewed as not feminine enough in pantsuits that covered her “crankles” (thick ankles) o No one doubted her desire to appear powerful  resulted in negative representations of her feminine side o Reason she was U.S. Senator, candidate for president, and why she may be front- runner  her husband messed around o Failure to see her as stereotypically attractive – result of her choice of clothes & her age o Women should be engaged in traditional sex roles Sex and Punishment: an Examination of Sexual Consequences on the Sexual Double Standard in Teen Programming Jennifer Stevens Aubrey - Types of sexual consequences in teen programming investigated - Emotional and social consequences far outnumbered physical consequences - Portrayal of sexual double standard investigated o Negative consequences more common in scenes which female characters initiated sexual activities than in scenes in which male characters initiated sexual activities - Sexual consequences: physical and downplayed the more ubiquitous emotional and social consequences of sex - Negative consequences of sexuality defined as being physical, adolescents are just concerned with emotional and social consequences of sex o Maintenance of sexual reputation o Uncertainty and confusion of their bodies o Emotional relationships with their sexual partners - Frequent messages in the programs was that men view women as sex objects and value them primarily for their physical appearance - Other messages characterized women as delimiters of sexual activities - Sexual double standard in magazines o women’s sexuality was associated with allure, passivity, and responsibility o men’s sexuality was associated with aggression and urgency - female characters might be more likely than male characters to be portrayed as experiencing negative sexual consequences especially when female characters are shown initiating the sexual activity - Exploring the sexual consequences of male and female characters is motivated by social cognitive theory (Bandura) individuals can learn how to perform behaviors from media models - adolescents seem to express more concern about the possible emotional and social pitfalls of sex than they do about the physical pitfalls - Research shows that girls internalize the belief that “nice” girls and “good” women do not take the initiative in satisfying their sexual desires wait for men to make the first move - exposure to these themes in entertainment television could contribute to the overall endorsement of gender stereotypes ANew Era of Minimal Effects? The Changing Foundations of Political Communication W. Lance Bennett and Shanto Iyengar - information channels have proliferated and simultaneously become more individualized - a new consensus seemed to emerge that the news does tell people both what to think about and also how to think about it Intellectual origins of political communication - pioneers of the field: Harold Lasswell, and later, Murray Edelman adapted perspectives from sociology, anthropology, psychology, linguistics, journalism, public relations, and economics o promoted notion that ordinary citizens had little capacity to reason or decide independently about o their views were shaped by their group memberships and experiences less susceptible to direct influence fro
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