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Final

CAS AN 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Philopatry, Polygynandry, Kin Selection

3 Pages
94 Views
Winter 2013

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
CAS AN 102
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

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Social Organization
Females limited by access to food so females distribute themselves according to how
food is distributed
Males limited by females so males distribute themselves according to how females are
distributed
Female distribution based on defendability of and access to resources, predation, and
offspring care
Type of feeding competition determines female relationships
Male strategies: infanticide, paternal care
Mating systems
Solitary (dispersed)
Polygyny (one male, multi-female)
Most common
Depends on whether males can economically defend multiple females
Depends on how females are dispersed
Primarly when food is clumped (if food is dispersed females will not form
groups)
Little food competition means males can keep females together in a group
Groups of related, philopatric females
A male may be able to defend a group from other mates
Monogamy (pair-living)
Less than 5% of mammals, around 90% of birds
Evolves when male parental care is non-shareable and indispensable to
female reproduction
Evolves when aggression by mated females prevents males from acquiring
additional mates
Polyandry (one female, multi-male)
Very rare
Polygynandry (multi-male, multi-female)
Very common, similar to polygyny
If males and females remain in same group they were born in, it would likely result in
inbreeding
Inbreeding increases homozygosity and will expose deleterious recessive alleles
Philopatric: Sex that remains where they were born while other sex disperses
Kin Selection
Individual selection: individuals and the genes they carry are units of selection because
the individual is the unit that can reproduce and die
Group selection: assumes that some animals sacrifice themselves for the good of the
group. Disproven as an individual with selfish tendencies would prevail
Inclusive fitness: Fitness both through direct descendents and through lateral relatives
Indirect fitness: received through relatives

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Description
Social Organization Females limited by access to food so females distribute themselves according to how food is distributed Males limited by females so males distribute themselves according to how females are distributed Female distribution based on defendability of and access to resources, predation, and offspring care Type of feeding competition determines female relationships Male strategies: infanticide, paternal care Mating systems • Solitary (dispersed) • Polygyny (one male, multi-female) ⁃ Most common ⁃ Depends on whether males can economically defend multiple females ⁃ Depends on how females are dispersed ⁃ Primarly when food is clumped (if food is dispersed females will not form groups) ⁃ Little food competition means males can keep females together in a group ⁃ Groups of related, philopatric females ⁃ A male may be able to defend a group from other mates • Monogamy (pair-living) ⁃ Less than 5% of mammals, around 90% of birds ⁃ Evolves when male parental care is non-shareable and indispensable to female reproduction ⁃ Evolves when aggression by mated females prevents males from acquiring additional mates • Polyandry (one female, multi-male) ⁃ Very rare • Polygynandry (multi-male, multi-female) ⁃ Very common, similar to polygyny If males and females remain in same group they were born in, it would likely result in inbreeding Inbreeding increases homozygosity and will expose deleterious recessive alleles Philopatric: Sex that remains where they were born while other sex disperses Kin Selection Individual selection: individuals and the genes they carry are units of selection because the individual is the unit that can reproduce and die Group selection: assumes that some animals sacrifice themselves for th
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