MMC 2000 Midterm: MMC 2000 Exam 3 Intro to Mass Media
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Department
Communication
Course
MMC 2000
Professor
Andrew Ellis
Semester
Fall

Description
MMC 2000 Exam 3 Chapter 9 • David Gottlieb: invented the first mass-produced arcade game, Baffle Ball, which consisted of a wooden cabinet and a plunger • Harry Williams: invented Contact, the first electric pinball game - Popularity exploded - Enthusiasm fueled even more when slot-machine makers entered the field and produced games with cash payouts • Due to the Depression, civic leaders were not much in favor of this development and banned the games - Because of cash payouts, pinball was considered gambling • Gottlieb -> “games that paid off in additional games rather than cash are not gambling.” - 1947: Humpty Dumpty rewarded high scorers with replays - Bans were lifted, pinball returned to arcades • “You can’t say video games grew out of pinball, but you can assume that video games wouldn’t have happened without it.” • Only three universities (MIT, Utah and Stanford) had the sleeker, more advanced computers in the 1950s-1960s - MIT’s Tech Model Railroad Club began writing programs for fun for a military computer • Steve Russell: produced the first interactive computer game, Spacewar in 1961 - Toggle switches that controlled speed and direction of two spaceships - No profit was made • Pong: Atari’s arcade ping pong game which sparked the video game revolution - 1975: marketed Home Pong through Sears and made first steps toward bringing arcade games into the home • Mattel brought true electronic games to handheld devices, using LED (light-emitting diode) or LCD (liquid crystal display) screens • Microvision: (1979) by Milton Bradley; first programmable handheld game system • Namco’s Pacman and Nintendo’s Donkey Kong became instant classics and all time best sellers - Nintendo introduced it’s game console NES, bringing home-version successes • Legend of Zelda: Nintendo’s revolutionary home console game, introducing open structure play - Players could go wherever they wanted and there were multiple routes to wining, now standard in modern games • By the early 1990s, CD-ROM-based computer games were common and successful - Doom and Myst • Doom: could be played over LANs, that is, it would be played by several people over a computer network - Also the first, first person perspective shooting game -> gamers “carried” the weapons and all action seen through their eyes • Video game: a game played by electronically manipulating images produced by a computer program on a television screen or other display screen • 3 of the fastest growing media companies: Zynga, Take-Two and Ubisoft • Concentration and globalization is the rule in gaming • Game console sales are the sole province of thee companies: - US’s Microsoft (Xbox and Kinect) - Japan’s Nintendo (Wii) - Japan’s Sony (Playstation) • Wii had significant popularity because it permits full-body, interactive play - Challenged by Microsoft’s Kinect, which is the fastest-selling consumer electronics device in history • In response to gamers increasingly abandoning consoles and handhelds for smartphones and tablets, the 3 manufacturers introduced powerful new consoles in 2013 - Sony’s Playstation 4, Microsoft’s Xbox One and Nintendo’s Wii U • As with film, industry insiders and fans are expressing concern over the industry’s reliance on sequels of franchises and licensed content, including movie- and television-based games - Creation of sequels is due to the mentality “stick with what works.” • New generation of handheld game devices is Internet capable - All three consoles are designed to perform a wide range of game and nongame functions • Smaller, faster, more powerful microprocessors were developed, distinction between games and personal computers began to disappear • Smartphones and tablets are revolutionizing the video game industry • Casual games: classic games most often played in spurts and accommodated by small-screen devices - Much, if not most, of today’s mobile gaming take the form of casual games • Social networking sites are joined by the tens of millions of gamers - Facebook’s Farmville and others accounted for 12% of it’s $3.7 billion revenue in 2011 • Easy to advertise to a segmented audience, such that advertisers have come to think of games as much like magazines • Advertisers are attracted to online game because they are sticky - An attribute of a website; indicates its ability to hold the attention of a user • Sponsors use games to reach their targets in four ways: - Product placement - Freemium games: video games in which advertising serves as in-game virtual currency • Advergaming: product placement in games ahs proven so successful, brands become the games themselves • Advocacy games: primarily on the web and for mobile devices, used by companies or organizations wanting to get their noncommercial messages out (politics, the environment, etc.) Chapter 10 • The Net is a product of the cold war • Batching processing: when computers worked on one thing at a time - Not effective • Time sharing: to share the processing power of one computer with multiple computers - First concept of computing • 1957: Soviet Union launches Sputnik - The Defense Advanced Research Project (DARPA) created a large scale computer network to accelerate knowledge transfer (ARPANET) • DARPA also developed 3 other concepts - Military network (RAND) - Commercial network (National Physical Laboratory) - Scientific network (CYCLADES) - Foundation of our modern Internet • Packet switching: digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks, called packets to avoid congestion of the lines • 1962: long-range missiles found in Cuba - At the time -> centralized network architecture - Decentralized architecture had to be developed - Internet was born with CYCLADES • Charles Babbage: “Originator of the Computer” - 1880s: developed designs for a “computer” but did not invent the computer • Colossus: developed by the British to break German codes; first electronic digital computer - Computer that processes data to a binary code - Binary code: info transformed into a series of digits 1 or 0 for storage and manipulation in computers • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator): first “full-service electronic computer” developed by John Mauchly and John Prosper Eckert • UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer): first successful commercial computer of Mauchly and Eckert - 1951: bought for a used by the Census Bureau • Commercial computer explosion was ignited by the International Business Machines (IBM) - One of its innovations was to sell rather than rent computers to customers - Owned about 64% of the market around 1965 • Personal or microcomputers (PCs): small computer that uses a microprocessor to handle info - Semiconductor replaced vacuum tubes - Smaller size, absence of heat and lower cost • Tablet was introduced in 2006 by Microsoft, expansion continued with introduction of iPad in 2010 • Leaders of the personal computer: Bill Gates and Steve Jobs & Stephen Wozniak • Bill Gates: dropped out of Harvard University and founded Microsoft - Licensed their operating system: the software that tells the computer how to work • Jobs and Wozniak: perfected Apple II, designed specifically for personal rather than business use; immediately hugely successful - Multimedia capabilities: advanced sound and image applications • The Internet is most appropriately thought of as a “network of networks” - LANs (local area networks): connecting two or more computer in a small area - WANs (wide area networks): connects several LANs in diff locations • ISPs (Internet service providers): companies that offer Internet connections at monthly rates depending on the kind and amount of access needed • E-mail: function of Internet allowing communications via computer with anyone else online, anyplace in the world, with no long-distance fees • Instant Messaging: real-time e-mail, allowing two or more people to communicate instantaneously and in immediate response to one another • World Wide Web (WWW): a tool that serves as a means of accessing files on computers connected via the Internet - NOT a physical place - Is a way of accessing info over the medium of the Internet - Uses hypertext transfer protocols (HTTP) to transport files from one place to another • Hosts: users must first gain access to the Internet through hosts or servers • URL (uniform resource locator): the designation of each file or directory on the host computer connected to the Internet • Browsers: software programs loaded onto the user’s computer and used to download and view Web files • Home pages: entryway into a website • Search engines: navigate by entering a search word and pointing and clocking at the resulting on-screen menus • To be clear: Internet is a massive network of networks; info travels over the Internet via Protocols; WWW is a way of accessing info over the medium of the internet • Exam question: T/F -> .com is a top-level domain (T) • Internet has users, not audience members - A person may be both reading content and creating content - Difficult to know how many users - People who own computers are not necessarily linked to the internet and people need not own computers to use the Net • Today, women in every age group use the Net more than men • Younger the person = more likely has access to the Net • Digital natives: people who have never known a world without the Internet • Rather than changing the relationship between audiences and industries, the Net changes the definition of the different components of the process • Feedback in mass communication -> traditionally inferential and delayed; online feedback -> immediate and direct (similar to interpersonal) • Double edge of technology-> is the Internet good or bad? - Good: access to info, Up Worthy, spread social issues - Bad -> cyber-bullying; steal info; terrorism; privacy - Depends on how it is used • Global Village: new communication technologies permit people to become increasingly involved in one another’s lives - Does not mean harmony, but an exchange of ideas - “World in which people encounter each other in depth all the time” • 1986 Electronic Communication Privacy Act guarantees the privacy of our e-mail - Protect private citizens from official abuse - Gives e-mail conversations the same protection that phone conversations enjoy - Must get a court order to tap • Encryption: electronic coding or masking of info on the Web that can be deciphered only by a recipient with the decrypting key • Radio Frequency Id Chip (RFID): sand-sized microchip and antenna embedded in a consumer product that transmit a radio signal • Augmented Reality: permits users to point phones at things in the real world and be instantly linked to websites containing info about those things superimposed over the screen image - If someone can access these data by simply pointing a phone at someone, privacy die • Cloud computing: storage of all computer data, including personal info and system-operating software, on distant computers • Virtual Democracy: Internet is characterized by freedom and self- governance - Computer technology is often trumpeted as the newest and best tool for increased democratic involvement • Technology gap: widening disparity between the communication technology haves and have-nots - If democracy is increasingly practiced online, those lacking the necessary technology and skill will be denied their vote • Digital divide: the lack of technological access among people of color, people who are poor or disabled and those in rural communities (not just US) • Information gap: the widening in amounts and types of info available to info haves and have-nots • Knowledge gap: growing differences in knowledge, civic activity, and literacy between better-informed and less educated Americans Chapter 12 • US advertisers and marketers spend nearly $500 billion a year • Advertisers believe that “we are susceptible to marketing because of our ignorance of it’s pervasiveness” - Murketing: making advertising so pervasiveness, consumers are ignorant of its presence • Early history of advertising - Babylonian merchants were hiring barkers to shout out goods and prices at passerby’s in 3000 BCE - Romans
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