AMH 2097 Final: AMH2097 Final

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16 Dec 2016
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Unit 3 Vocab
Second Wave Migration
- Includes South and East Europeans. Falls roughly around time of Chinese
exclusion acts. America didn't really welcome them with open arms. (Anti-
Immigrant backlash)
Revolutions of 1848
- Violent wars. The goal was to get rid of old order and democratize the old
principalities. It culminates with around 20 years of civil war with Italian
unification in 1870 (now under the control of one government).
Italian Unification
- Result of the end of the revolutions of 1848. Italy is not under the control of
one government. Just because they now call themselves unified, does not
mean there are still not rivals based on old political disputes. With this
structure, peasants are cut out of politics.
- Unequal government policies and taxation on peasants.
Northern Italy
- Northern Italians: wealthier, more industrialized, had a lot of more interest
in politics than Southern Italy. Has more access to economic and cultural
trade with France and Germany and were therefore also multi-lingual. They
had lighter skin than southern Italians because of the types of works they did
and intermarriage. Predominantly middle class (professionals and
educators). More motivation of organizing Italian peninsula into one country.
Owned most of the land in southern Italy which is why a lot of people in the
south voted for the north. Northern Italians essentially controlled the
country.
Southern Italy
- Southern Italians were generally more poor, working class farmers, who
were cut off from other parts of Europe. Only about 1-2% could vote (owned
land). North would raise Southern taxes then invest it in Northern Italy (little
infrastructure and education). Prone to natural disasters, focused social
structure on extended families. They don't trust outsiders (tax collectors,
police, catholic church, etc.). Church made southern Italian farmers pay rent
on their land. A lot of emphasis was put on the family, the community, honor,
and status (had extended families like the Chinese. With none in government
to turn to for help, they had to turn inward for help (where idea of the mafia
comes from). Resorted to organized crime.
Northern Italian migration
- (1st migration) In 1860, about 10,000 people of Italian decent were in the US.
From 1850-1890, around 80,000 more people come. Mostly skilled artisans
or professionals. Merchants helped build/run factories helped industrialize
the US. Also Butchers, glass blowers, stonecutters, etc.
- Pull factors for Northern Italian migration
o More Money. Many spoke English, lighter skin, Protestant religion
(much more assimilated). Were valuable members of the communities
they were apart of.
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- 5 Factors of Success for Northern Italians in America
o Language: a lot of spoke English
o Money: came with money; looking to make more
o Location/numbers: mostly NE cities, less of a factor because fewer
numbers and more spread out (no enclaves). They went wherever
there was money
o Stereotypes: positive, provided skills and services.
Southern Italian migration
- (2nd migration) Lasted roughly from 1880s-1920s. Very large migration: 4.5
million in a 40-year time span. The view of Italian immigration comes from
this migration (stereotypes).
- Migration goals: not to come to US get land and bring families but instead to
go over, get a job, support family back in Italy, and once saved up enough
money, would return home. Before 1900, Italian migration was typified as
temporary.
- Southern Italian migration push factors
o 1. Revolutions of 1848 and unifications: outcome was bad
o 2. Mistreatment by government: all their tax money was improving
northern Italy.
o 3. Industrialization in the north: shuts down the cottage industry in
the south. Repaired things and made clothes and furniture so
industries in the North were killing their business.
o 4. Natural disasters: long lasting drought: people were selling water
from town to town which lead to the spread of water born diseases
such as collar. People couldn't raise crops.
o Volcanoes and earthquakes: large eruptions, ruins more than
farmland that had already been desiccated by the drought.
o Phylloxera: Plant disease that attacks the grape/olive leaves and hurts
the plants. Thanks for Florida and California, lots of the citrus
industries from the Mediterranean can't compete with the US.
- Southern Italian migration pull factors
o 1. Jobs: availability in the US (industrial revolution is at full force at
this point). Factory work
o 2. Padrone system: "master/ patron" (way they worked in the
factories); agents that worked with factories and immigrants to help
them find work in the factories (like job brokers).
o 3. After 1900, ethnic enclaves "little Italy's" start springing up. The
knowledge that there were already people from their communities
- 5 factors of success of Southern Italians in America
o Numbers: between 1880-1924, 4.5 million S. Italians came to the US
(tracked how many came but not how many left/returned home).
People start settling in the US; all the push factors add up to convince
people to permanently stay in the US and bring families over. (Maybe
we ought to just stay in the US)
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o Money/Jobs: Coming with little money, looking to make more. Took
low paying, demeaning jobs such as still mills, factories, etc. Not liked
by other immigrants because they worked for so cheap. Mainly the S.
Italian immigrants built NY subway system.
o Location: as permanent settlers, they stayed mainly in NE cities such
as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia as well as Chicago. Lived in
buildings called tenements
o Language: spoke Italian. 'we're not going to stay here, we won't
bother learning the language' like the Chinese. In the 1900s, the US
starts to limit immigrants who don't speak English. The Italian
government set up schools for immigrants to learn English so they
could go to America and make money.
o Stereotypes: Northern Italians contributed in the Southern Italian
discrimination. They were considered backwards, inward looking,
stupid, illiterate (they were illiterate but not because they were
stupid, because they never got the opportunity to learn), and refused
to learn English. It was frequently pointed out that they had darker
skin. Were Catholic.
o The mafia myth: largely perpetrated by anti-immigrant Americans
and N. Italians. (All southern Italians are part of a criminal society that
has aspirations of taking over the world (all part of organized crime).
Popular culture (novels, Hollywood) helped contribute to this idea.
Movies such as the Godfather, Sopranos, and Goodfellas all portrayed
S. Italians as criminals and linked them to organized crime. Italian
organized crime did exist but not that drastically; they were more
likely to be victims of it than part of it. American nativists used the
mafia myth to round up S. Italians and throw them in jail.
Anti-Italian Sentiment
- Most of these can also apply to other immigrant groups of this time period
including the Polish, Russian, and other South or East Europeans. Because
they lived in ethnic enclaves (little Italy's), they made the anti-Italian
sentiment worse. They were discriminated against because they were living
in poor conditions, they did not speak English, and because many didn't
bother to learn because they were only there temporarily and had accents if
they did.
- Southern Italians were lower on the Racial-ethnic-national latter because of
their darker skin tone.
- Experienced problems from Irish/German Catholics. Southern Italians were
catholic but also didn't trust the organized church. The American Catholic
church was controlled by the Irish-Americans, hence why they discriminated
against the S. Italians.
- The S. Italians also refused to accept outside help. Family honor/pride. It
would have been dishonorable/shameful to their families if they had.
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Document Summary

Falls roughly around time of chinese exclusion acts. America didn"t really welcome them with open arms. (anti- The goal was to get rid of old order and democratize the old principalities. It culminates with around 20 years of civil war with italian unification in 1870 (now under the control of one government). Result of the end of the revolutions of 1848. Italy is not under the control of one government. Just because they now call themselves unified, does not mean there are still not rivals based on old political disputes. With this structure, peasants are cut out of politics. Unequal government policies and taxation on peasants. Northern italians: wealthier, more industrialized, had a lot of more interest in politics than southern italy. Has more access to economic and cultural trade with france and germany and were therefore also multi-lingual. They had lighter skin than southern italians because of the types of works they did and intermarriage.

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