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GEOG 1112 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Solar Irradiance, Oxygen, Northern Hemisphere


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1112
Professor
Virginia G. Silvis
Study Guide
Midterm

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GEOG 1112

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Chapter 1: Essentials of Geography
Important Terms
Process
A set of actions and changes that occur in some special order
Scale
The ratio of the distance on a map to that in the real world
Systems
Any ordered, interrelated set of materials or items existing separate from the
environment or within a boundary; energy transformations and energy and matter
storage and retrieval occur within a system
Three Scales of Hurricane Patricia
Global scale: Western Hemisphere
Regional scale: Mexico’s Pacific Coast
Local scale: Damaged restaurant in Las Manzanillos, Jalisco State, Mexico
The Scientific Method
Earth Systems Concepts
System
Any ordered, interrelated set of things and their attributes, linked by flows of energy
and matter.
Example:
Q: Which of the following is the most strongly supported
by experimental and observational evidence?
A: Theory
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Open Systems and Closed System
Open system
A system with inputs of energy or matter and outputs of energy or matter.
Closed system
Shut off from the surrounding environment so that it is self-contained. Closed
systems are rare in nature.
Earth is an open system in terms of energy.
Earth is a closed system in terms of physical matter and resources.
Types of Energy
Radiant energy travels from Sun to Earth in waves
Kinetic energy is energy of motion
Potential energy is stored energy such as the gravitational energy related to vertical
position
Chemical energy is stored in molecular bonds and converted during chemical reactions
System Feedback
Feedback loop
Outputs of a system influence the system’s operation.
Negative feedback
Feedback information discourages change in the system.
Stabilizes system
Positive feedback
Feedback information encourages change in the system.
Destabilizes system
Earth’s Four Spheres
Atmosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Hydrosphere
Earth’s Dimensions
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Latitude
An angular distance north or south of the equator, measured from the center of Earth
(e.g., 49° N, 12° S).
A line connecting all points along the same latitudinal angle
Latitudinal Geographic Zone
Arctic: 66.5N to North Pole
Subarctic: 55N to 66.5N
Midlatitude: 35N to 55N
Subtropical 23.5N to 35N
Equatorial and Tropical: 23.5N to 23.5S
Subtropical: 23.5S to 35S
Midlatitude: 35S to 55S
Subantarctic: 55S to 66.5S
Antarctic: 66.5S to South Pole
Longitude
An angular distance east or west of a point on Earth’s surface measured from the center
of Earth (e.g.,10° E, 10° W).
The Greenwich meridian at 0° is the prime meridian.
Great circles and Small Circles
Great circles divide the globe into equal halves and passes through its center
Small circles divide the globe into unequal sections this plane does not pass through
the center
Earth’s Coordinate Grid System
Latitude and parallels, longitude and meridians allow all places on Earth to be precisely
located.
Converting Decimal Degrees to Degrees Minutes seconds
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