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Exam 1 Notes (got 94% in the course)

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Louisiana State University
ANTH 2050

Anth Exam 1IArchaeology and PrehistoryaArchaeology and PrehistoryiAnthropology the biological and cultural study of all humanity ancient and modern1Archaeologists are anthropologists aAnthropologists are concerned with living societies archaeologists study the human cultures and societies of the pastiiArchaeology is the study of ancient human behavior based on surviving material findsiiiArcheological record1Archives of the past made up of surviving finds resulting from ancient human behaviorivTextaided archaeology1Practiced with the aid of historical documentsaConfined to societies that have flourished during the past 5000 years vPrehistoric archaeology1Of ancient societies that were nonliterate2Extends back at least 26 million yearsviThe doctrine of uniformitarianism1Geological observations presented evidence of gradual change over long periods of time through natural processes such as flooding and erosion2The bones of long extinct animals such as the ancestors of the elephant and the hippopotamus came from European river gravels some from the same strata as carefully chipped stone axes of obvious human manufactureviiTwo major scientific developments now produced critical evidence for the antiquity of humankind1Charles Darwins theory of evolution and natural selection in his On the Origin of Species in 18592Proof of the contemporaneity of human and extinct animals documented conclusively by finds in gravels of the Somme River in northern France in the same year three years after the discovery of the browbeetled Neanderthal skull in Germany the first archaiclooking human ancestor creating a framework for human existence that extended back tens of thousands of years into an unknown pastviiiWorld prehistory in archaeology1Radiocarbon dating2Explosion in the number of professional archaeologists during the 1950s and 1960sbCulture and Culture ChangeiThe distinctive adaptation system used by human beingsiiA societys traditional systems of belief and behavior as understood by individuals and the members of social groups as manifested in individual or collective behavioriiiPart of our way of adapting to the environmentivCultural system1A complex system comprising a set of interacting variables tools burial customs etc that function to maintain a community in a state of equilibrium with its environment2No cultural system is ever staticaWhen one of the elements changes ex hunting practices change in response to prolonged drought then reacting adjustments will occur in many other elementsvCultural process1The processes by which human societies changed in the past2Inventions and design improvements result in dozens of minor alterations in the ways people live3The term process is used in archaeology to refer to mechanisms by which cultures change
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