[BIOL 1002] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (15 pages long)

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BIOL 1002
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Biology 1/19/2017 7:03:00 PM
Chapter 19
Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity
19.1 How Are Organisms Named and Classified?
The branch of biology that is concerned with naming & classifying organisms
= Tazonomy
Established by the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-
1778)
Used a 2 part scientific name for all organisms
The two-part scientific name of an organism is formed from the genus and
species
Genus: group that includes a number of a very closely related
species
Species: within a genus includes populations of organisms that can
potentially interbreed under natural conditions
The two-part scientific name of an organism is formed from the genus and
species (cont’d.)
The genus Sialia (bluebirds)
Each 2-part scientific name is
Scientific names are always underlined or italicized
The 1st letter of the genus name is always capitaized
The 1st letter of the species name is lowercase
The species name is always paired with genus name
Humans = homo sapiens
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Classification originated as a
Each species was grouped together on the basis of resemblance to
other speicies
The categories form a nested hierarchy in which each level
The Linnaean classification system came to include eight major categories or
taxonomic ranks
Domain (largest group, most inclusive) Kingdom Phylum Class
Order Family Genus Species (smallest group, least inclusive)
Modern classification emphasizes patterns of
Darwin’s work demonstrated that all life is
Biologists then realized that taxonomic categories should
o The more categories two organisms share, the
Author Animation: Taxonomic Classification
Modern classification emphasizes patterns of evolutionary descent (cont’d.)
Today, the process of classification focuses on reconstructing
phylogmy or evolutionary history
Systematics: science of reconstructing phylogeny
Systematists have increasingly focused their efforts on building
evolutionary trees, rather than dividing organisms into specific
Linnaean classifications
Systematists name groups, called
Clades can be arranged in a hierarchy, with
Clades Form a Nested Hierarchy
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