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GEOL 1001
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Chapter 1 An Introduction to GeologyWhen did the earth formo137 billion years ago big bangWhat are sources of heat in earth oHeat energy thats left over from the formation of earth in the center of the earth decay of radioactive mineralsWhen did the Earth formo457 gaWhat are the Earths layers What are they made of What are their properties How do we know what the different layers are use of seismic waveseg which waves tell us about solid liquid and gasoCrust upper mantle lower mantle outer core inner coreoCrust cooled mantle which consists of a variety of rocks that differ in composition oceanic crust or continental crust Crust is made of silicates and granite a low density rock It is very cold and brittle Elements are O Si Al Fe Ca C Na K Mg Oceanic crust is thinner and more dense than continental crustoMantle consists entirely of an ultramafic dark and dense rock called peridotite solid Mantle is made of peridiotite very Fe and Mg rich little Si Mantle is 99 solid 1 liquid so it has partial meltoCore outer core consist of liquid iron alloy The inner core consists of a solid iron alloyOuter core is made of Fe liquid generates earths magnetic field Inner core is a very dense solid with too high of a pressure to be a liquid is made of PbUnderstand the rock cycleoIgneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rockoIgneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals Igneous rock can form underground where the magma cools slowly Or igneous rock can form above ground where the magma cools quicklyChapter 2 Plate Tectonics You will NOT find everything you need to know about plate boundaries in this chapter Know your plate boundaries Know what happens where Divergent boundaries Continental rifts and Midocean ridgesoKnow the igneous rocks type of melting type of metamorphism style of deformation all characteristics of the boundaries Could you draw a crosssection What are the special features of these plate boundaries eg a midocean ridge is where new crust formsSpreading boundary plates pull apart New oceanic crust solidifies from basaltic magma along the ridge axis As plates move away from the axis they cool and the lithospheric mantle forms and thickensDivergent boundaries Continental rifts two continental plates and Midocean ridges two oceanic plates Normal faults dip slip faults form at divergent boundaries Volcanoes rifting are found here in both
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