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Questions For Captive And Amazing Grace (got 96%)

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HIST 1003
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Questions for Lisa Lindsay Captives and Commodities and the film Amazing GraceCaptives and Commodities is a good companion to Amazing GraceThe film starring Ioan Gruffud Romola Garai and Benedict Cumberbatch is the story of William Wilberforce the members of parliament MP who led the fight to abolish the slave trade in BritainHe succeeded in 1808 and the United States outlawed the slave trade that same yearA convenience for teachers of this book is that the chapters themselves are questions so we will use themI Chapter I is entitled Why did Europeans Buy African SlavesFrom that question come othersa The Portuguese were involved in the slave trade long before anyone elseWhyWhat were some of the causes for a shortage of labor in Portuguese enterprises in the New WorldIn the 1600s the Dutch replaced the Portuguese as the principal slave tradersHow and why did the Dutch take over the slave tradeA voyage of discoveries led Portuguese explorers to make contact with West African CoastIn 149798 A Portuguese expedition led by Vasco de Gama sailed around Africa and reached India oIn 1500 A Portuguese expedition to India swung wide to the west to catch the Winds and did not make it to India but on the Eastern Coast of South America laying the basis for Portugals claim to Brazil In Brazil the Portuguese sought to capitalize on sugar production this expanded rapidly and sugar productiondominated Brazils economy in ththe 17 century Brazil relied on Native Americans to work the sugar plantations but when their population fell and Brazil needed more laborers The booming sugar sales allowed growing numbers of costly slave deliveries to brazil by means of Portuguese shippers who dominated the Atlantic Slave Trade because they where guaranteed a monopoly by the Spanish Crown They had a trading settlement at Angola AfricaoProfit and discovery drove the Portuguese to explore Navigational and ship building advances helped them to achieve their goalsLabor Shortage Portuguese sugar plantations depended on the labor of Native Americans A massive population loss was brought on by European conquest Brazils native population fell from 25 million to under a million within a century of the arrival of the Portuguese Although foreign diseases were the primary cause for such a disaster the destruction of Indian communities disruption of established patterns of agriculture and forced labor on European mines and plantations also played deadly roles DutchIn 1619 the Dutch seized 20 captives from a Portuguese slave vessel in the Atlantic It was the Dutch who first challenged the Portugal monopoly in the Atlantic Trade oWhy Portugals maritime commerce and Brazils profitable sugar industry attracted competition How In the 1600s the Dutch landed a series of attacks on Portuguese overseas oBetween the 1590s and 1640s the Dutch asserted their political independence form the Spanish Empire which at that time also ruled Portugal This put the Dutch in competition with Portugal in Asia Africa S America and well as Europe oThe Dutch government chartered the East India Company in 1602 to compete with Portugals Asian spice trade and in 1621 the West India Company was created to seize Portugals American and African possessionsoFollowing initial attack on the Portuguese a Dutch fleet in 1629 seized the Brazilian sugar province of Pernambuco where the Dutch planters took over and extended the sugar cultivation already there The next step was to gain direct access to African Slave supplies after attacks the Dutch eliminated Portuguese traders from the region oThe Dutch thus became a dominant power in the Atlantic Slave Trading Systemo Recap By the Dutch undertaking sugar production themselves and later helping spread it to newer English and French colonies the Dutch expanded ththe slave trade and the New World slavery dramatically in the 17 century b What was indentured servitude a term that will reappear in The Kings Speech and what were its advantages and disadvantages over slavery as providing a work forceHow was Barbados a model for plantation slaveryEuropean settlers in the Caribbean islands found few Indians to exploit and had little access to precious metals to pay for imported slavesthis is when indentured servants originated Some were forced to be indentured servants as payment for a crime others were abducted and forced and many did it willingly in desperation of moneyland Basically exchanged several years of labor for the prospect of land cash and independence afterward Advantages over slavery in the workforce initially indentured servants cost only half of African slavesDisadvantages To staff an entire plantation with waged workers is too costly Limited quantity of them available with the establishment of sugar plantations and resistance from the Dutch there was increasingly difficulty of recruiting and managing European indentured servants In addition rising wages in England was stiff competition for recruiting desperate indentured servants Hard to control rebel escapeHave only a finite period of time they must work before getting paid Africans are slaves for lifeIn 1680s sugar had become the Barbados colonies major crop The large plantations were needed to produce the amount of sugar demanded for trade African slave population rose and Africans worked on the plantations Barbados provided a model of African
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