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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2076

PSYCH 2076 notesChapter 6 Child Development Physical DevelopmentThe Body and the Brain1MythsaWe only use 10 of our brainbBrain and body are separate entitiesreally what affects the brain affects the body and vice versa2Brain Developmentwill never have to label a brain but know what the different areas doaStructuresiBrain stemspinal cord and basic functions like breathingiiCerebellumbalance and movement1Amygdala2HippocampusiiiOccipital lobevisualivTemporal lobehearing language memory emotionvParietal lobesensory input spatial awarenessviFrontal lobeselfcontrol processes complex thought movement language working memorybLanguage centers are largely on the leftcMost humor and emotion is on the right sidedNo such thing as being totally left or right brainedeBrain research is one of the most active areas in child development3Developmental processes of the brainaBrain is made of 100 billion neuronsbEach nerve cell sends messages vie special chemicals called neurotransmitters to other cells through axonscEach cell receives messages through receptors called dendritesdThe place where the axon from one neuron meets the dendrite from another neuron is called the synapseeAdults have approximately 1 quadrillion synaptic connectionsfAxons are connected to dendrites at the synapse4Synapses in infantsaBorn with all the neurons they will ever havebRelatively few synapses connections between themcExperiences they have shape the development of synaptic connections and formation of the braindDevelopment of new synapses is called synaptogenesis5Newborn babies form synapses in their brains at the rate of over a million new synapses every second6PruningaDuring the first year of life a babies brain produce many more synapses than are found in adult brainsbSynapses that are unused deteriorate or disappear This process strengthens the brain and makes it more efficientcExperienceexpectant brain developmentiYour brain expects something to happeniiEX expecting daily exposure to light helps the brain remember and use the light pathwaysdExperiencedevelopment brain developmentiIndividualized depends on each persons experienceiiNew synapses can form 7PlasticityaThe ability of the infant brain to change in form and functionbBrain of young has enough plasticity that brain cells that were intended to serve one function can turn into brain cells that control another function insteadiEX Hemispherectomy videoshe had to lose half of her brain due to seizures Rasmussens syndrome8Myelination and brain developmentaIn order for neurons to work efficiently they need to be coated with a fatty substance known as myelinbMyelination is still occurring after birth and through adolescence9Adolescent brain developmentaContinues to developbMyelination of speech centers and motor centers particularly fine motor skillscDevelopment is still occurring in the prefrontal cortex reasoning judgment and impulse controldThe connections between reasoning centers and emotion centers amygdala are still developingeEmotional responses in adolescents are less tempered by reasoning than will be the case in adultsfThe tendency of some adolescents to act on their emotions without thinking through a situation may be related to the immaturity of this system in their brain10Disabilities related to the brainaBrainBody disabilityiCerebral Palsy
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