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PSYC 4030-Final

14 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 4030

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1PSYC 4030Study GuideDebunking Psychics VideoHow did James Randi demonstrate to the college students how they could be fooled by individualized horoscopes James Randi demonstrated that horoscopes fooled people by having general situations for everyone that could be true He proved this by giving horoscopes to each individual in a college class Then after reading the horoscope he asked who the horoscope applied to After several students raised their hand he asked people to pass the horoscopes around and it turns out all of the horoscopes were the same This proved that people were fooled by the general sayings that the horoscope provided What did James Randi point out what was wrong with previous parapsychology experiments carried out by the Russian scientists on the psychic who could supposedly affect another persons brain waves and heart rateRandi pointed out that the scientists had a confirmation bias going in to the experiment They figured that their observation was not objective and cannot measure through electrochemical impulses They did not do a doubleblind study which was neededWhat did James Randi demonstrate about how psychic surgery could be performedRandi demonstrated that psychic surgery could be performed using trickery where in most cases there is no trace of an incision on the body of the patientTo any experienced magician the methods by which these miracles are produced are very obviousHowever inexperienced observers naturally dont see the trickery and if they are predisposed to believe in magic they are prepared to accept that something supernatural has taken placeCreativity and Expertise LectureWhat is the definition of a creative productDefined by being Noveloriginal and Usefulappropriate to task at handNovel originalUseful appropriate to task at hardCREATIVE PRODUCT extent which experts in the field independently agree that a product or response is creativeWhat is the difference between big C and little c creativityBIG CMajor WorksLittle CEveryday creativityWhat are the stages of creativity according to Wallas 1926 IPreparation getting ready for creationIIIIllumination coming up with idea IIIncubation thought process behind creationIVVerification realizing idea that has been createdWhat is incubation What did Smith and Blankenship 1991 find with respect to incubationIncubation situation where you are unable to solve a problem and you set it aside for awhileLater on you are able to solve it sometimes the answer appears to pop to mindSmith and Blankenship found that longer that ideas were allowed to be in mind fresh more likely they were to affect our decision makingWhat is insight What were the findings of MetcalfeWiebe 1987Illumination Insight when a keynew idea emerges AHA Ive found the answerAttempted to look for the moment of insightSaw that if people were right OR wrong both had same AHA moments2Describe the Geneplore model of creativity What were the findings of Finke 1990GeneploregenerationexplorationNotion of preinventive structure Early ideas that may or may not lead to a final productHow does confirmation bias affect how you process consistent and inconsistent informationConfirmation bias we more carefully scrutinize information that doesnt fit with our beliefs inconsistent information than information that does fit consistent informationWhat is truthinessTruthiness is what you want the facts to be as opposed to what the facts are Stephen ColbertHow can you combat confirmation bias 1 Take a step back and determineWhat is the issue Remember that your definitions can affect what you see as a solutionIf you are disagreeing with someone can you agree on how to define the issueWhat would constitute evidenceType of evidence you would find convincing 2 Consider other perspective on the problem 3 Practice counterfactual reasoning as an antidote to hindsight bias How could it have turn out differentlyHelping Doctors and Patients Make Sense of Health StatisticsWhat is collective statistical illiteracy p 54Widespread inability to understand the meaning of numbersWhat are the 3 main points in this monograph p 54Damage it does to healthemotion its potential causes and its preventionWhat is the difference between absolute and relative risk Which type of risk does the media tend to report pg54top of pg55Absolute risk is like increased 1 in every 7000 Relative risk is like 100 increasemedia reports generallyWhat is the difference between conditional probabilities and natural frequencies Which is easier to understand Why p 55Conditional probabilities includes the sensitivity and the falsepositive rateNatural frequencies displays a transparent representation of the informationDefine positive predictive value p 56Positive Predictive Value the probability that a positive screening test means that a person has a specific diseaseWhat is the key difference between survival and mortality rates What is the lead time bias p 56Survival amount of people that are diagnosed that are still alive after X yearsMortality number of people dead from disease over amount w cancerLead Time Bias time when disease is diagnosed affects survival rateWhat is the overdiagnosis bias p 57
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