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exam #3 study guide.docx

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Pennsylvania State University
HIST 121
Linda Short

EXAM #3 study guide THE FINAL ROUNDUP OF JEWS (1942-1944) The Requests: First  Acts of reprisals against Germans living abroad (5/42)  Response: 12/17/42: Allied governments in London, Moscow, and Washington issue a joint statement condemning “in the strongest possible terms”, and make a “solemn resolution to ensure that those responsible for these crimes shall not escape retribution.” Second  Requesting funds from international Jewish organizations to rescue the remaining Jews by purchasing their freedom (Europa Plan)  Response: Himmler also negotiating. No funds forthcoming. Logistics, politics, funds Third  Destroy all roads from Hungary through Poland to Auschwitz; bomb RR lines Responses to bombing  Con: might lose prisoners’ lives: yes, but a) die anyway b) grander purpose  Con: targets too difficult: but Allies know where targets are; summer 1944 US bombers accidentally bomb part of Auschwitz  Con: wouldn’t make difference: a) send message b) chaos c) decrease 10,000/day Liquidations and Deportations  March 1942:  Lublin ghetto liquidated  1 deportation Slovakian Jews to Birkenau st  1 deportation French Jews  July 1942:  1 deportation Dutch Jews  265,000 Jews from Warsaw ghetto deported  (White Rose)  August 1942: deportation Belgian Jews  December 1942: German Jews deported Next year: 1943  Feb: Rosenstrasse Protest  March: 1 deportation Greek Jews, Bulgaria deports Jews  April: Uprisings at Treblinka and Sobibor, Warsaw ghetto uprising and liquidation  September: Wilno ghetto liquidated  October: rescue of Danish Jewry to Sweden, roundup of Jews in Rome The Year 1944  May: 1 deportation of Hungarian Jews (Hungarian Jews are last major group rounded up and deported – to Birkenau)  June: D-Day; Allies land in France  July: Kaunas ghetto liquidated, Wallenberg rescue effort in Budapest, German attempt to kill Hitler, Soviets liberate Majdanek  August: Lodz ghetto liquidated  October: uprising at Birkenau (The Grey Zone), Slovakian Jews deported END OF THE WAR (1944- May 8, 1945) Hitler’s Promise  If we (the Germans) were to loose the war, we would bring down with us “a world in flames” 1944: Germany under Assault  German economy in trouble  Assault by Soviets in the east  Assault by Allies in the west, including the US after the June 6, 1944 D-day landing  Allied bombing in Germany peaks from January 1944-January 194 (1.4 million tons of US bombs) July 1944  Assassination attempt  Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg (1907-1944)  Precipitated general crackdown in Germany Germany fights on  Albert Speer’s organizational abilities  Peak of fighter plane manufacture 9/44  Draft 15-60 year olds 9/44  New production highs in tanks and assault guns 12/44  Uses slave labor: 300,000 in 1939, 7.5 million by 1944 German Public and the War Effort  German press told to continue blaming Jews for the war  Warned of harsh treatment by vengueful Allies, thus, redouble efforts  Hitler threatens German public  “I will shed no tears for the German people.” 1944: Killings continue  12,000 persons per day at Birkenau  Summer: Hungarian Jews deported  August: Warsaw uprising  August: Roma family camp revolt  October: Sonderkommando revolt Death Marches  Fall 1944 until German surrender  Through Polish, German and Czech countryside  Destroying camps and killing centers left behind  Est. 250,000-375,000 dead Late 1944-1945  Soviet, British, and American troops begin to liberate camps  Himmler, Luftwaffe commander Goering, German foreign minister Ribbentrop: offer to negotiate peace to save selves  March 19, 1945: Nero Order: destroy everything Spring 1945  April 28: Italian partisans kill Mussolini  April 30: Hitler commits suicide  May 8: V-E Day: German unconditional surrender  May 23: Himmler captured Late 1945  August 6: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima  August 9: US drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki  August 15: Japan surrenders  November 22: Nuremburg trials begin The end mirrors the beginning  Before his suicide, Hitler calls the annihilation of the Jews his greatest achievement and blames the entire war on “international Jewry and its helpers”  Another “Big lie”: German radio reports Hitler suffered an “heroic death in battle” AMERICA AND THE SHOAH (ongoing questions) US pre-war sentiment  Isolationist  Anti-war  Immigration laws and policies  Recovering from depression  Antisemitic, including Fascist and Nazi elements  Neutral, until the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 Other influences  The visa policies of the US State Dept. (Breckinridge Long, Asst. Secy of State)  What did we know when  Leaders supportive of “winning the war”, not rescuing Jews  The 1943 Bermuda Conference  1944 War Refugee Board created late, to avoid scandal about response to Jews Criticism and Response  Wyman’s views as outlined in his books and used as basis of the film, America and the Holocaust: Deceit and Indifference  Brecher critiques Wyman, offers another perspective David S. Wyman  Wyman, born in MA and grandson of 2 Protestant ministers, PhD from Harvard in history, specialty Judaic Studies Frank W. Brecher  Frank W. Brecher is a former career member of the United States Senior Foreign Service Disagree about outcome  Extend to which Germany could have been pressured to cancel its killing of Jews  Feasibility of Allied rescue after 1941  Number of Jews who might have been saved  How effective American Jewry might have been if unified  Whether historical evidence supports criticisms RELIGIOUS RESPONSES: RESPONSE OF PROTESTANTS German Protestant Churches  Leadership structure 
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