Stats Midterm Review

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Maria Cipollone

Corey Young Mrs. Maria Cipollone Statistical Psych 200 25February 2013 Midterm Outline • Inferential Statistics i. Science: an organized body of knowledge that applies the scientific method. ii. Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relationship of facts/events. iii. Universal Statement (fact): a statement that applies to every circumstance. iv. Scientific Laws (fact): a statement that applies to some proportion of circumstances. v. Theories: explanations of facts/events. vi. Developing Theory: scientific method strives to develop a systematic body of theories. • Research Design i. Specific changes between groups ii. Superficially designed by researcher iii. Treatment groups iv. Control group v. Null Hypothesis: statement of treatment had no affect above chance. • Gathering Data For Survey Research i. Unformed opinions ii. Weakly held opinions iii. Changing opinions iv. Public Research v. Field Research vi. Dichotomous: outcomes that can be divided into two categories. vii. Likert: ordinal continuous 7 point scale. viii. Ethno graph: participant observant. • Relationship & Phenomena i. Association versus causation ii. Correlation versus prediction iii. Variables: independent or predictor ---- dependent or criterion/outcome. iv. *Correlation does not imply Causation • Representing Data & Levels of Measurement i. Cross Tabulation: single tab ---- cell ii. Main Diagonal: cluster of data moving in the same direction demonstrates positive association. iii. Off Diagonal: inverted cluster of data, possible inverse association. • Defining Variables i. Qualitative: terms, names, attributes, categorical. ii. Quantitative: numbers, frequencies (f or n), where n= sample size. iii. Nominal: act of naming variables (no value). iv. Ordinal: Individual/grouped ordered data, rank, score. v. Interval: where zero exists, has a meaning, has a value. vi. Ratio: absolute zero; cannot go below. vii. Demographic Variables: variables describing the sample population. viii. Causal Relationship: attempting to infer the direct effects of one variable on another. *Examining Effects • Unit of Analysis i. Performance Bias: when the individual is performing according to what they believe the researcher wants to know or here. *Not a true measurement ii. Operational/Working Definition: de
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