Mrs. Maria Cipollone
Statistical Psych 200
• Inferential Statistics
i. Science: an organized body of knowledge that applies the scientific method.
ii. Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relationship of facts/events.
iii. Universal Statement (fact): a statement that applies to every circumstance.
iv. Scientific Laws (fact): a statement that applies to some proportion of
v. Theories: explanations of facts/events.
vi. Developing Theory: scientific method strives to develop a systematic body of
• Research Design
i. Specific changes between groups
ii. Superficially designed by researcher
iii. Treatment groups
iv. Control group
v. Null Hypothesis: statement of treatment had no affect above chance.
• Gathering Data For Survey Research
i. Unformed opinions
ii. Weakly held opinions
iii. Changing opinions
iv. Public Research
v. Field Research
vi. Dichotomous: outcomes that can be divided into two categories. vii. Likert: ordinal continuous 7 point scale.
viii. Ethno graph: participant observant.
• Relationship & Phenomena
i. Association versus causation
ii. Correlation versus prediction
iii. Variables: independent or predictor ---- dependent or criterion/outcome.
iv. *Correlation does not imply Causation
• Representing Data & Levels of Measurement
i. Cross Tabulation: single tab ---- cell
ii. Main Diagonal: cluster of data moving in the same direction demonstrates
iii. Off Diagonal: inverted cluster of data, possible inverse association.
• Defining Variables
i. Qualitative: terms, names, attributes, categorical.
ii. Quantitative: numbers, frequencies (f or n), where n= sample size.
iii. Nominal: act of naming variables (no value).
iv. Ordinal: Individual/grouped ordered data, rank, score.
v. Interval: where zero exists, has a meaning, has a value.
vi. Ratio: absolute zero; cannot go below.
vii. Demographic Variables: variables describing the sample population.
viii. Causal Relationship: attempting to infer the direct effects of one variable on
another. *Examining Effects
• Unit of Analysis
i. Performance Bias: when the individual is performing according to what they
believe the researcher wants to know or here. *Not a true measurement
ii. Operational/Working Definition: de