SOC 001 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: The Young Professionals, Part Of Speech, Bourgeoisie

378 views17 pages
School
Department
Course
Professor
Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide
Textbook Notes
(All material from “The Practical Skeptic: Core Concepts in Sociology” by: Lisa J. Mclntyre)
Chapter 10: Socialization
-Total institution: “[A total institution is] a place of residence and work where a large
number of like-suited individuals, cut off from the wider society for an appreciable
period of time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life.” -
Goffman
Phrase coined by Erving Goffman who studied places like mental hospitals and
prisons, where he found that in these organizations, an intense socialization
experience took place
Characteristics:
-People are cut off from the rest of society and are stripped of their individuality
-People are seen as object, such as “inmates”, “patients”, “recruits”
Goal = Resocialization… where they take away the individual’s self and give him
or her a new one in order to keep with the needs of the total institution
-Resocialization is generally begun by subjecting the individual to what
psychologists call: “Degradation Ceremonies” —> the goal is to degrade the
individual, that is, take away the individuals self in preparation before giving him
or her a new one.
-Depersonalization: the young men (part of Marine Corps) no longer called by
their names, their possessions were taken away, they were subject to new rules,
uniforms and haircuts
To accomplish, the men had to do some unlearning, former roles and identities
need to be forgotten
No total Institution has the power to completely erase its inhabitants individuality
-Seems to work best where newcomers want be resocialized
Most successful when the institution does not tear down newcomer but build him or
her up
-Military camps tend to be more successful then prisons for they identify pride.
1
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide
-In the movie “Full Metal Jacket” there is evidence that Parris Island is a total
institution
There were a large group of people all together in this isolated situation, they are
cut off from wider societies norms, values, and beliefs, they are fenced into the
camp, can only go where sergeant tells them, must address sergeant by sir, all in
uniform, etc.
Chapter 11: Deviance and Social Control
-Relativity of Deviance
-Norms vary across societies, therefore what is considered to be deviant varies
across societies
It is impossible to to find any specific act that is regarded as deviant in every
culture
-Norms change over time— even within a particular culture, therefore what is
considered deviant at one time may be considered normative at another time
-Norms vary within a particular society— different subgroups have different
norms; therefore what is considered deviant will vary from subgroup to subgroup
within a particular society
-Nonsociological Explanations
For centuries many theorized that deviance was simply a product of sin and was
used by demonic possession
Mid-Nineteenth century— first attempts to explain deviance was focused on
biological factors
-Cesare Lombroso, a physician who worked in Italian prisons, argues that
deviant people were, in effect, biological failures!
“Criminals are evolutionary throwbacks”
Criticism:
-Italian prisoners were most likely Sicilian— a group of people with lower
foreheads, prominent cheekbones, etc.— so he theorized that people with
these physical features are criminals, but if Lombroso would've traveled to
Sicily, he would've found the same features present among the general
nonimprisoned population
2
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide
-Charles Goring probed the matter more and found no evidence of physical
differences that would decipher someone as a criminal
William Sheldon stated that a persons body shape determined their criminality
-3 General Body Types: (1) Ectomorphs—tall, thin, fragile; (2) Endomorphs—
short and fat; (3) Mesomorphs— muscular and athletic
-Concluded that Mesomorphs were most likely linked to criminality
Researchers later found that the way in which Mesomorphs were socialized…
Society created a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy towards them that encouraged
their criminality
Personality factors -such as those arising from “unsuccessful
socialization” (Superego vs. “Aggressive Personality)
-Superego: hypothesize that people with a strong conscience (or superego) tend
to be good, whereas people with weak consciousness tend to be bad
-Some psychologists state that some forms of deviance, such as violence, are a
manifestation of an “aggressive personality”, whereas other forms, such as
homosexuality, may be seen as an expression of “psychological dependency”
-Sociological explanations— outside the individual
Durkheim was one of the first researchers to look for causes of deviance in terms of
society rather than individual factors
Deviance is frequently a learned behavior
Becker— a sociologist and jazz musician, he noticed that jazz musicians tended to
smoke marijuana
-During his time, people regarded marijuana smokers as people with distinct
psychological and/or emotional problems
-Becker suspected it was the nature of this behavior not the problems
-Interviews people and identified 3 important social qualities that lead to becoming
a marijuana smoker
(1) Learning to Smoke— generally had to smoke several times to get high so
this was seen as the idea that a novice doesn't know how to smoke “properly”
-Interviewers reported that learning to smoke was a social thing
3
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Textbook notes (all material from the practical skeptic: core concepts in sociology by: lisa j. mclntyre) Goffman: phrase coined by erving goffman who studied places like mental hospitals and prisons, where he found that in these organizations, an intense socialization experience took place, characteristics: People are cut off from the rest of society and are stripped of their individuality. Seems to work best where newcomers want be resocialized: most successful when the institution does not tear down newcomer but build him or her up. Military camps tend to be more successful then prisons for they identify pride. Norms vary across societies, therefore what is considered to be deviant varies across societies: it is impossible to to nd any speci c act that is regarded as deviant in every culture. Norms change over time even within a particular culture, therefore what is considered deviant at one time may be considered normative at another time.

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers