[PS 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)

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Quinnipiac University
PS 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Discovering Psychology: Module 1
I. Definition and Goals
a. Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental
processing
i. Behaviors refer to observable (visible) actions and responses in both
humans and animals
ii. Mental processes are not directly seen, they refer to a wide range of
complex mental processes, such as:
1. Thinking
2. Imagining
3. Studying
4. Dreaming
b. Goal 1: Description
i. What is happening?
c. Goal 2: Explanation
i. Why does this happen?
d. Goal 3: Prediction
i. This predicts organisms will behave under certain situations
1. “I bet if we do this, then that will happen”
e. Goal 4: Control
i. Control an organism’s behavior
II. Modern Approaches
a. 8 modern day approaches
i. Biological
1. Focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system
interact with our environment to influence learning,
personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping
techniques and other traits and abilities
ii. Cognitive
1. Examines how we process, store, and use information and
how this information influences what we attend to, perceive,
learn, remember, believe, and feel
iii. Behavioral
1. This studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify
existing ones, depending on whether events in their
environment reward or punish these behaviors
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iv. Psychoanalytic
1. Based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly
influenced the development of later personality traits and
psychological problems
2. Stresses the influences of unconscious fears, desires, and
motivations on thoughts and behaviors
a. Freudian theory falls into this
v. Humanistic
1. Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in
directing his or her future, a large capacity of potential for
self-fulfillment
a. Positive psychology comes from this
vi. Sociocultural
1. This studies the influence of social and cultural factors on
psychology and behaviors functioning
vii. Evolutionary
1. Studies how evolutionary ideas, such as adaptive and
natural selection, explains human behaviors and mental
processes
viii. Biopsychosocial
1. Studies how biological, psychological, and social factors that
influence human development
III. Five Major Perspectives
a. Biological
i. A way of looking at psychological phenomena by studying how
physiology to behavior and experience
b. Cognitive
i. A way of looking at psychological phenomena by studying the way
humans and non-human animals construct, analyze, organize,
store, retrieve, and use experience
c. Developmental
i. A way of looking at psychological topics by studying changes in
physical and cognitive processes throughout the lifespan
d. Social
i. A way of looking at psychological topics by studying the ways
people are influenced by, thing, and interact, with others in our
social and cultural environment
e. Psychologist as Scientists Practitioner
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