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01:119:116- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 61 pages long!)


Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:116
Professor
G.Transue
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:119:116
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Dr. Stern Cardinale
genbio@dls.rutgers.edu
Virology
Classification and Evolution
--> SEQ natural selection
--> INTERPRET phylogeny
1.
Virology
--> SEQ viral replication cycle
--> CC types of replication cycles
--> CC viral origin hypotheses
2.
Classification and Evolution
I.
Classification (and systematics)A.
Study of diversity of organisms & evolutionary relationships
Two Parts
a.
Taxonomy - Naming, describing, classifying
Phylogeny - Evolutionary history of species or group
Taxonomy - describing, naming, classifying organisms
Binomial nomenclature: Genus + specific epithet
Ex: Homo sapiens
Homo = genus, sapiens = species, "wise"
Linnaean Classification
B.
Hierarchical - each level more inclusive than one below
-
All species at a level share characteristics of that group
-
Taxon - grouping at any level *Fig 26.3
-
Evolution
Accumulation of genetic changes within populations over timea.
Changes in allele frequency from generation to generation
Not changes in an individual during their lifetime
Natural Selection
A mechanism of evolution (1 of many) - beneficial traits increase in frequency over generations
-
Acts on variation (variational evolution b/c based on variation on each gen.)
-
Biological Diversity
c.
B.
Basics of PhylogenyC.
Evolutionary history of a species or group of species
Phylogenetic Tree - representation of evolutionary relationships- not phenotypic similarity
-
Trees are hypotheses
-
Use dichotomies : two-way branches **Fig 26.12
-
How to Read/interpret : figure 26.5
-
Gen Bio 116 Lecture 1- Virology
Tuesday, January 17, 2017 3:45 PM
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Connecting Classification & Phylogeny
-
Taxonomy should reflect phylogeny **Fig 26.4
-
Tree of Life
-
3 domain system **Fig 26.21
Virology II.
Viruses are on the continuum of biological spectrum
General CharacteristicsA.
"Nonliving" particles that all consist of
Capsid - protective coat
a.
Genome - protected by the coat
-
Can be defined by subcellular, intracellular, parasites
Subcellular : Smaller than cells (usually), "less than" cells
Intracellular: Replicate within cells
Parasites: Use cell's resources for own cycle
-
Viruses are always exceptions
-
Viruses Do Not or Cannot:
Carry out metabolic processes
Reproduce independent of host cells
Contain nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles ( they are not cells!)
-
Still very large and complex
-
Viral StructureB.
(often) very small ~ 20-300 nm - too small for light microscopy
**Fig 19.3
-
Genetic Material
Can be pretty much anything
DNA or RNA
single-stranded (SS) or double-stranded (DS) or both
Linear, circular, or segmented
2-1000+ genes
-
Viruses don’t use higher levels of Linnaean classification, instead, 7 groups
-
Capsid
-
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