04:189:102 Midterm: INTRO TO MEDIA EXAM 2
DepartmentCommunication and Informatio
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Study Guide for Exam 2 - Intro to Media - Spring 2019
De Martinville - French printer who conducted the first experiments with sound recording; recorded sound
but could not play it back (1850s)
Thomas Edison - had success playing back sound; invented the phonograph thinking it would make a
good answering machine (1877)
Bell & Tainter - furthered sound recording and improved the phonograph by inventing the graphophone;
which played back more durable wax cylinders (1886)
Emile Berliner - German engineer who invented the flat disk and developed the gramophone to play it;
labeling system is introduced and sound recording becomes a mass medium (1887)
Vinyl records (1940s), 33⅓-rpm LP record (1948), 45-rpm record (1949)
Audio tape - plastic magnetic tape; its lightweight magnetized strands made possible sound editing and
multiple-track mixing; led to vast improvement of studio recordings and increases in sales; “home
dubbing” allowed consumers to copy records (1940s)
Mono - the recording of one channel or track of sound
Stereo - the recording of two separate channels or tracks of sound (1958)
Analog recording - captures fluctuations of sound waves and stores those signals in a record’s grooves or
a tape’s continuous stream of magnetized particles
Digital recording - translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information as
numerical code; microprocessor translates code back into sounds (1970s)
Compact discs (CDs) (1983)
Rocky Relationship b/n Records & Radio
• In 1924, record sales dropped due to arrival of radio as a competing massmedium, providing free
entertainment, independent of the recording industry.
• Radio stations began broadcasting recorded music without compensation. In 1925, The American
Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) established music rights fees for radio.
• The recording and radio industries only began to cooperate after TV became popular in the
1950s. They benefited from radio’s new “hit songs” format.
• During digital, Internet streaming radio stations were required to pay royalties to music companies
while radio stations got to play music royalty-free.
• In 2012, Clear Channel pledged to pay royalties for broadcasting to Big Machine Label Group in
exchange for a limit on royalties for streaming.
Convergence: Sound Recording in Internet Age
MP3 - enables digital recordings to be compressed into smaller, more manageable files (1992)
• By 1999, Napster’s free file-sharing service brought the MP3 format to popular attention;
countless music sales lost to illegal downloading.
• In 2001, U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of music industry and against Napster, declaring free
file-swapping illegal and in violation of music copyrights held by recording labels and artists.
“Music in the cloud” - eliminates physical ownership; format became popular with streaming radio services
Rock & Roll, Blues, R&B
Rock & Roll - blues slang term for “sex”; first to simultaneously transform the structure of sound recording
and radio; many social, cultural, economic, and political factors contributed to its growth, including black
migration to the North for better jobs, growth of youth culture seeking escape from menacing world, and
beginnings of racial integration (1950s)
Blues - foundation of rock & roll; influenced by African spirituals, ballads, and work songs from rural
South; electric guitar gave southern blues its urban style (1930s)
Rhythm & Blues (R&B) - blues-based urban black music
High & low culture, masculinity & femininity, country & city, North & South, sacred & secular
Battles in Rock & Roll
Alan Freed - Cleveland DJ who popularized the term rock and roll; played original R&B recording from
race charts and black versions of early rock & roll
Dick Clark - Philadelphia DJ who believed that making black music acceptable to white audiences
required cover versions by white artists
• Black artists found that their music was often undermined by white cover versions.
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• Payola scandals of the 1950s portrayed rock & roll as a corrupt industry; independent promoters
hired by record labels used payola to pressure DJs into playing songs by artists they represented.
• Fear of juvenile delinquency led to censorship of rock & roll.
Detroit Gives America Soul
Soul - transformed older R&B, pop, and early rock & roll; mixed gospel and blues with emotion and lyrics
drawn from the American black experience
• Most prominent independent label that nourished soul and black pop music was Motown, started
in 1959 by Berry Gordy and named after Detroit’s “Motor City” nickname.
• Motown groups had a more stylized, softer sound than the grittier southern soul (later known as
Folk Inspires Protest
Folk music - songs performed by untrained musicians and passed down mainly through oral traditions
• The music genre that most clearly responded to the political happenings of the time was folk
music, which had long been the sound of social activism.
Music Labels Influence Industry
Oligopoly - U.S. and global music business; business situation in which a few firms control most of an
industry’s production and distribution resources; gives these firms enormous influence over what types of
music gain worldwide distribution and popular acceptance
Indies - small independent production houses; music industry’s risk-takers; major labels rely on them to
discover and initiate distinctive musical trends that first appear on a local level; when successful, labels
swallow them up
A&R (artist & repertoire) Agents - talents scouts of the music business who discover, develop, and
sometimes manage artists
Demos - demonstration tapes; A&R executives listen from new artists
Peggy Hull - first female war correspondent accredited by the U.S. War Department who covered World
War I and World War II
Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick - first newspaper in North America published on
September 25, 1690 by Boston printer Benjamin Harris; banned after one issue due to Harris’s negative
tone regarding British rule
USA Today - launched in 1982 by Gannett; first to openly acknowledge TV’s central role in mass culture:
the paper used TV-inspired color and casted many reports in present tense rather than past tense
Partisan press - particularly political papers generally pushed the plan of the particular political group that
subsidized the paper; gave us editorial pages
Commercial press - served business leaders, who were interested in economic issues; forerunner of
Human-interest stories - focus on daily trials and triumphs of the human condition, often featuring ordinary
individuals facing extraordinary challenges
Six-cent papers - average cost of newspapers in 1820s and sold through yearly subscriptions; because
that price was more than a week’s salary for most skilled workers, newspaper readers were mostly
The Penny Press
• Penny papers competed with six-cent papers.
• In 1833, printer Benjamin Day founded the New York Sun with no subscriptions and the price set
at one penny. It focused on human-interest stories.
• In 1835, James Bennett founded the New York Morning Herald, the first U.S. press baron and
free from political influence.
• Penny papers were innovative by incorporating advertising as consumer news.
Wire services - commercial organizations that relayed news stories and information around the country
and the world using telegraph lines and, later, radio waves and digital transmissions; in 1848, six New
York newspapers formed a cooperative arrangement and founded the Associated Press (AP), the first
major news wire service
*The Radio-Press War (1933-1935)
*Newspapers & Technology (telegraph, radio, TV, Internet)
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