[BIO 3372] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 34 pages long Study Guide!

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Troy University
BIO 3372
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Friday, August 19, 2016
Chapter 1: The Microbial World and You
What is microbiology?
A specialized are of biology and studies living organisms too small to be seen without a
microscope
Microogranisms or microbes - collective term for organisms visualized by a microscope
0.05% of unknown species, about 583 species are disease causing
Microbiology Disciplines:
Public Health/ Epidemiology - monitor and control the spread of diseases in a
community
Medical - microbes cause diseases in humans and animals
Immunology - host response to infection
Industrial - deals with screening, improvement, management, and exploitation of
microorganisms for the production of various useful end products on a large scale
Agricultural - relationship between microbes and domestic plants
Environmental - microbes affect earth habitats
Impact of Microbes on Earth:
Evolution - accumulation of changes that occur in organisms as they adapt to their
environment
Microbes have influenced the evolution of other organisms
Microorganisms are Ubiquitous:
Found everywhere
Occur in large numbers
Influence landscapes essential to life
Live in places other organisms cannot
Microbial Involvement in Energy and Nutrient Flow within Ecosystems:
Ecosystem - communities of living organisms and the surrounding environment
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Friday, August 19, 2016
Photosynthesis - the light fueled conversion of carbon dioxide and oxygen
Bacteria performed photosynthesis well before plants did.
Microorganisms account for >70% of photosynthesis and contribute to the majority of
oxygen
Decomposition and nutrient cycling involves the breakdown of dead matter and wastes
into simple compounds/nutrients that can be reused in the natural cycles of
development.
Microorganisms are the main forces that structure the content of the soil, water, and
atmosphere.
Infectious Diseases and Microorganisms:
Microorganism can also cause great human misery and death
Pathogen - a disease causing organism, such as a bacterium, virus, fungus, protozoan,
or helminth
Infectious diseases - disorders caused by microorganisms.
Human Use of Microorganism:
Humans have used microorganism for thousands of years to improve life and to shape
civilization
Baker’s and Brewers yeast are a type of single-cell fungi used to make bread rise and
to ferment sugar into alcohol to make beer and wine.
Fungi are also used to make cheeses such as Camembert or Blue Cheese
Ancient Egyptians applied moldy bread to their wounds as it acted as an antibiotic.
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms:
In 1739, the system of nomenclature (naming) was established by Carolus Linnaeus
Scientific names are italicized
Two names are assigned to each organism:
Genus - the first name is capitalized
Species - the second name is italicized
Both names are italicized or underlined
Names may be descriptive, honor a scientist, or identify a habit
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