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GSC 102 Final: Exam 3 Review Sheet

Geological Sciences
Course Code
GSC 102
Study Guide

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GSC102: Exam #3 Review Sheet
70% of the exam (all the multiple choice) will be based on the questions from
student presentations
Mass Extinctions (all the essays, 30% of the exam)
1. Know the 5 mass extinction events
A) Ordovician Mass Extinction Event
B) Devonian Mass Extinction Event
C) Permian Mass Extinction Event
D) Triassic Mass Extinction Event
E) Cretaceous Mass Extinction Event
2. Which organisms went extinct vs which survived, but either benefitted or were
3. What are all the possible causes?
A) Evidence
4. Which is the most likely cause?
A) Evidence
1. The spread of non-native species
2. We out-compete all other species for resources
3. Humans are directing evolution
4. Technosphere: stone tools, wheels, farming, etc
1) Ordovician Mass Extinction Event:
85% of all animal species went extinct
All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived. (Including
trilobites, brachiopods, corals, crinoids, and graptolites.) But each group lost
important members.
Widespread families of trilobites disappeared and graptolites came close to total
From slide: 85% of life went extinct, the main survivors lived in deep ocean water, species
died but families survived
Possible causes:
1) Rapid global cooling
2) Volcanic gases poisoning atmosphere
3) Gamma ray burst from a hypernova
4) Increased toxic metals causing deformities (2015)
“The fossils [in Libya] displayed as many as 100 times more deformations than
expected from background studies, along with up to 10 times greater heavy
metal concentrations. “
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