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BIOL 1543 Final: exam 4 review (CH 16-19, 37)

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University of Arkansas
BIOL 1543
John Chadwick

Melanie Rosowski May 2016 Principles of Biology POB Exam 4 Review Chapters: 16.116.2,16.4,16.7,16.1216.14, 16.1516.19 16.1: Prokaryotes are diverse and widespread Prokaryotes are found wherever there is life The collective biomass is 10 times that of all eukaryotes Bacterial pathogens: disease causing agents less common than harmless prokaryotes Microbiota: the community of microorganisms that live in and on our bodies bacteria living in our skin perform helpful functions (decomposing dead skin cells), guard body from pathogenetic intruders Prokaryotes make nitrogen available to plantsother organisms 16.2: External features contribute to the success of prokaryotes Cell shape: important to identifying prokaryotes Cocci: spherical prokaryotic cells (streptococci: cocci that occur in chains) (staphylococci: cocci that occur in clusters) Bacilli: rodshaped prokaryotes Mostly occur singly, may also be threadlike or filamentous Spirochete: spiral, corkscrew shape, longflexible cells (spirilla: short and rigid) Cell wall: nearly all prokaryotes have a cell wall Enables them to live in many environments Provides physical protectionprevents cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment Gram stain: technique scientists use to identify cell wall type Gram positive: simpler walls with peptidoglycan (polymer of sugars crosslinked by short polypeptides) Gram negative: less peptidoglycan and are more complex, outer membrane containing lipids bonded to carbohydrates generally more threatening (toxic lipids) Archaea dont have any peptidoglycan Wall is often covered by a capsule (sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein) that enables prokaryotes to adhere to a surface or to other individuals in a colony can shield pathogenic prokaryotes from attacks by the immune system Projections: Many bacteriaarchaea have flagella (enable them to move in response to chemicalphysical signals) Fimbria: hairlike projections that enable some prokaryotes to stick to a surface or one another 16.4: Prokaryotes have unparalleled nutritional diversity
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