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[ANTHRO 33] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 20 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHRO 33
Professor
Dr.Erin Debenport
Study Guide
Midterm

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UCLA
ANTHRO 33
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Lecture 2
Ahearn Ch. 1 Review
3 vignettes
Different words for getting high (San Fran)
Young people who won't learn their native language (Papua New Guinea)
Pounded Rice Ceremony (Nepal)
Ferdinand de Saussure
Langue v. parole
o Langue: grammar + phonology
o Parole: how language is used
o Believed only langue should be studied, while linguistic anthropologists believe both are
important
Theory of the sign
o Sign: anything that can be read as having meaning
Arbitrariness of the sign
o There is no particular reason that "cat" or "gato" should conjure the image of a cat
Noam Chomsky
Universal grammar
o We are all inherently born with a set of rules that tells us how to make language
o Linguistic anthropologists disagree, believe we all have the capacity to learn language, but
it's not inherent
Competence v. performance
o Similar to langue v. parole
o Competence: everyone has a knowledge of how to produce the language ideally
o Performance: how it's actually used
Mentalist view of language
Linguistic anthropology
Cannot just look @ just grammar, must look at how the language is used, the context it's in
Phonology: study of sound and sound systems
o When you know a language, you know how you're supposed to put the sounds together
o i.e. "-ing" is never @ the beginning of a word in English
o Similar application
Morphology: internal structure of words
o Know how to use prefixes, suffixes, and infixes
o Morpheme: smallest unit of meaning in a word
o i.e. -'s
Syntax: word order and structure of the sentence
o Have to be able to combine parts of speech in a grammatically correct way
o Studied heavily in linguistics (Chomsky)
Semantics: study of meaning @ the sentence level
o Have to know how to construct and understand meaning
o Let's eat Grandma v. Let's eat, Grandma
Pragmatics: study of language use
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o Parole and performance
o Culturally specific ways of speech
o Of particular interest to linguistic anthropologists
Phonetics: classification of speech sounds
Computational linguistics: how to get a computer to simulate language
Cognitive linguistics: how we acquire and use language and the effects on the mind
Four Main Themes
Multifunctionality/Variation
o Jakobson's Functions of Language
o In any speech interaction, there is a
Speaker: expressive/emotive function
Addressee: conative function
Context: referential function, what is being conveyed
Message: poetic function, how descriptively it's being conveyed
Contact: phatic function, channel is established between speaker and addressee
Code: metalinguistic function, talking about language using language, basically all of
linguistic anthropology
o Some are more emphasized in certain interactions, but they are always all present
Language ideology: attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or theories we all have about language
o Not necessarily bad, but can be caught up in ideas of power
o Serve the interest of a specific social or cultural group
Often expresses stereotypes about communities and individuals
Slang can induce positive opinions, being cool
o In any given society, are best conceived of as multiple
Can be contradictory
Can belong to multiple language ideologies
o People may be more or less aware of their own or others' language ideologies
o People's language ideologies mediate between social structures and forms of talk
Institutions such as education, regional groups, etc. are often involved in language
ideologies
Practice: not looked @ in this class because the topic is too big and involves big social theories
Indexicality: how various characteristics of language and speech point to cultures, stereotypes,
regions, etc. associated with those characteristics
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