[BIOL 1102] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (19 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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BIOL 1102
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
Monday, January 16, 2017
10:12 AM
Big bang: about 13-14 billion years ago
Within three minutes after the big bang
o Protons and neutrons combine to form the first atomic nuclei
o Protons: positive charge, part of nucleus
o Neutrons: no charge, part of nucleus
What were the first nuclei to form
o The four lightest elements: hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium
About 300,000 years after the Big Bang
o Electrons now join atomic nuclei to form atoms
o Electrons: negative charge, in orbit around nucleus
What is hydrogen made of?
o 1 proton, 1 electron
What is helium made from?
o 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons
What is the most abundant element in the sun and universe?
o Hydrogen (about 90%)
One billion years after the big bang
o Hydrogen clouds are clumping together to form galaxies and stars
How old is the sun
o 5 billion years old
o How hot is the sun?
28 million degrees Fahrenheit at the core
o Where does the sun get its energy?
Turning hydrogen into helium through nuclear fusion
Where are carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen formed?
o From fusing helium atoms inside bigger stars called red giants
Where are heavier natural elements like iron, gold, and platinum formed?
o Inside even bigger stars (supergiants) and supernovas
How old is the moon?
o Between 4.0 and 4.6 billion years old
o How did the moon form?
The "Theia impact": a Mars sized proto-planet slammed into earth
o General characteristics of the moon
No atmosphere or magnetic field
Cold interior
Some ice at poles
Same side always faces earth (orbit = rotation)
o What are the moon's main influences on the earth?
Create the tides
Stabilize the earth's rotation on its axis, which stabilizes climate
How old is the earth?
o 4.6 billion years old
o General characteristics of Earth?
Hot interior
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Liquid water, ice, and water vapor
Atmosphere
Magnetic field
o How does the earth's magnetic field protect the earth?
By blocking charged particles coming from the sun (solar wind)
o Where does the earth get interior heat?
From radioactive decay of elements in earth's mantle
Ex: uranium, thorium, potassium
o The earth has an atmosphere, where did it come from?
Gasses released when the earth's mantle was compressed into distinct layers
o Early atmosphere
Very little free oxygen
Lots of carbon dioxide
Lots of water vapor
o Atmosphere today
Lots of oxygen
Low carbon dioxide
Less water vapor
o What caused an increase in the amount of oxygen gas?
The evolution of photosynthesis
o What caused a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide
Carbon is tied up in living and dead organisms (fossil fuels)
Photosynthesis uses CO2 to make sugars
o What is currently causing an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide?
The burning of fossil fuels releases the stored carbon
Animals exhale CO2
What layer of atmosphere gas protects life on earth?
o Ozone
o What does it protect the earth against?
Ultraviolet light (radiation)
o How is it formed?
Oxygen gas (O2) joins with a free oxygen (O) in upper atmosphere to produce O3
(ozone)
o How high is it?
About 31 miles high (~50km)
o How thick is it?
When compressed, a few millimeters thick
One of the most important features of earth is the presence of liquid water
o How much of the earth's surface is covered by water?
About 75% surface is covered with water
o How much of this is salt water?
97%
o How much of this is fresh water?
3%
o How much potable (drinkable) water on earth?
Less than 3%
Life
o Origin of life on earth (Bacteria, Archaea)
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