[BIOL 1107] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 92 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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BIOL 1107
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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4/15
Chapter 12 - Mitosis
cancer starts in a gene - cell division has a lot to do with cancer
What constitutes a chromosome?
ome = proteins are involved
not just a double helix of DNA
each chromosome has similar proteins to other chromosomes
don’t have two chromosomes until sister chromatids have been separated
metaphase = wednesday (middle of the week)
Central Nerve cells - don’t divide and can’t be replaced if damaged
but nerve cells divide to repair
condensed chromosomes goes to metaphase
karyotype - picture of your chromosomes at metaphase
centromere at each chromosome is at a different location
same centromere position = homologous chromosomes
DNA molecule itself has genes to tell cell to constrict chromosomes to create
centromere
When centromere is in different place on homologous chromosomes
reads to devastating effects
interphase may take months but mitosis can happen in an instant
interphase
G1 - carry out normal activity and at some point becomes a gate to divide, cell
makes call to repair or replace, inventory do I have enough proteins to pull this
off? (proteins include enzymes etc)
DNA Synthesis -
G1 and G2 are checkpoints for inventory (specifically enzymes of certain
amounts)
metaphase - chromosomes are lined up end to end
precision enables a cell to make two new copies of an individual cell that are
genetically identical to the original parent cell
bacterial cell division
chromosome replicates
chromosomes move apart; using of FtsZ protein forms
FtsZ ring constricts. Membrane and cell wall infold
Fission complete
kinetochores cannot connect to spindle fibers → chromosomes can’t be moved
Mitosis - promoting factor (cyclin)
cell wants to replicate because environmental changes (surrounding cells
destroyed)
high enough concentration of MPF → cell enters mitosis
cancer cells detach from the original tumor and invade other parts of body → metastasis
Malignant tumor - physically moving away from tissue and physically moving into
capillary
enter capillary and be carried into lung (metastasis)
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2/19
Meiosis
more organisms on this planet carry out meiosis than organisms that carry out mitosis
cells fuse before they divided = intercourse
lateral gene transfer - single celled organisms do this when they transfer genetic material
between themselves
early prophase I is different than early prophase in mitosis
homologous pairs pair up
2/22
Chapter 15
Why do our cells, bacteria included, need RNA primase?
lagging strand is more fragmented than leading strand - Okazaki fragment
unreplicated end of lagging strand
telomerase - enzyme that creates telomeric DNA (does not make genes), redundant
sequence of DNA, physically adds primer and bring in additional nucleotides to add in
region, redundant nucleotides, that gene in us is shut down
very active in sex organs → building gametes
DNA polymerase III adds a mismatched base but notices the mistake and corrects it →
end of S and into G2
UV light → exposure of cell, causes thymines to form bond, bond cause thymines to
change position and create kink in DNA monomer
nucleotide excision repair - clean upstream and downstream
Chapter 16
*******How many genes are involved in change of color?
1 gene involved
two different sequences of DNA but same gene
hair coat color is trait but only one gene is involved
transcribed to an mRNa and then translated to protein → only one gene
responsible
alternate expressions of a gene = allele
due to differences in sequence of DNA
one gene, different alleles or expressions (ex: blood type A,B, and O)
********Genes associated with expression of blood type → one gene 3 alleles
2/24
Chapter 16
genes are either dominant or recessive (misconception)
gene is a sequence of DNA (ATGC), no sequence of DNA at a chemical level can be
either dominant or recessive
alleles → represent a sequence of DNA
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