[LING 1010] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 12 pages long Study Guide!

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LING 1010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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The$Innateness$Hypothesis
"How&do&people&come&to&know&so&much&on&the&basis&of&so&little& experience"
Plato's&Problem&428-348&BC
Plato-All&ideas&are&innate,&they&come&from&our&nature
Aristotle-All&ideas&come&from&experience,&they&are&due&to&nurture
Rationalism&and&Empiricism
Examples:&Sexual&orientation,&gender&choice,&abilities& to&do&well&in&school,&
inclination&to&commit&crimes,&sense&of&cooperation&and&solidarity
The&nature-nurture&question&arises&in&all&disciplines&that&are&concerned&with&the&
human&mind&and/or&human&behavior
Some&part&of&the&mind&is&perhaps&fully&innate&(perception&systems)
Some&'modules'&are&likely&fully&learned&due&to&innate&general&learning&
mechanisms&(how&to&make&a&pizza)
Some&modules&are&perhaps&due&to&innate&specific&learning&mechanisms&
(language)
A&Sensible&Compromise
We&call&this&the&mental&grammar
Assumption-language&use&(production&and&perception&of&utterances)&is&
behavior&that&is&based&on&knowledge&that&forms&a&module&of&our&mind
Language&as&a&Case&Study
The&innateness&hypothesis&(the&language&instinct)
Claim:&"most&of&language&is&innate"
Noam&Chomsky&(1928)
Philosophy$of$the$Mind,$Cognitive$Science,$and$Modularity
Based&on&exposure&to&language&L&an&innate&language&unique&mental&state&
(Universal&Grammar)&develops&into&a&full&fledged&mental&grammar&of&language&L
Chomsky's&answer:&the&initial&state&is&'non&empty'&and&there&is&a&
genetically&based&innate&'guide'&to&constructing&the&mental&grammar&of&L.&
This&device&is&called& Universal&Grammar&(UG).&We&also&call& it&Language&
Acquisition&Device&(LAD)
The&logical& problem&of&language&acquisition-how&is&the&acquisition&of&language&
logically&possible
Chomsky's&Approach&to&Plato's&Problem
Weeks%1%+%2
Tuesday,& January& 17,&2017
10:34&AM
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Acquisition&Device&(LAD)
Epistemology-branch&of&philosophy&concerned&with&the&notion&of&knowledge
How&does&the&mind&relate& to&experience?
§
Rationalism&and&Empiricism
How&does&the&mind&relate& to&the&body?
§
Mind&and&Body&Dualism
Big&issues
How&does&the&mind&relate& to&everything&else?
Rene&Descartes&(1596-1650)
§
Forms/ideas&represent&the&'essence'&of&phenomena,&things/events&
we&observe&or&experience&
§
In&Plato's&view,&the&forms&exist&in&'the&world&of&forms'
§
Example:&the&idea&'triangle'
§
Plato&believed&that&before&our&bodies&existed,&our&souls&existed&in&a&
place&('heaven'),&where&they&were&exposed&to&the&forms
§
Therefore&our&real&knowledge&of&the&forms&is&a&memory&of&our&initial&
acquaintance&with&the&forms&in&heaven
§
Therefor&what&we&seem&to&learn&is&in&fact&just&remembering
Plato&theory&of&forms&or&ideas
Law&of&contiguity:&things/events&that&occur&together&in&time&or&
space&are&linked&in&the&mind
Law&of&similarity:&things/events&that&are&similar&tend&to&be&
linked
Law&of&contrast:&thing/events&that&are&opposites&tend&to&be&
linked
Law&of&frequency:&the&linkage&will&be&strong&if&things/events&
occur&together&very&often
§
Aristotle&proposed&three&laws&of&association&and&one&law&of&
frequency
Aristotle's&General&Learning&Mechanisms:&Association
§
Gottfried&Wilhelm&Leibniz&(1646-1716)
§
Benedict&de&Spinoza&(1632-1677)
®
Hume&stated&that&genuine&knowledge&must&either&be&
directly&traceable&to&objects&perceived&in&experience,&or&
1739-
A&Treatise&of&Human&Nature
§
David&Hume&(1711-1776)
More&rationalists
Defenders&of&Rationalism
Philosophy&of&the&Mind
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