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Study Guide

[MMW 12] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (19 pages long)


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Professor
Edmond Chang
Study Guide
Midterm

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UCSD
MMW 12
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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MMW 12
Winter ‘17
Chang Track
Lecture Notes (purple)
Outline Lecture OneIntroduction: Religion within Empire
I. Spiritual Revolutions in the Axial Age (roughly 7th to 4th centuries BCE)
a. Why “Axial”?
i. Pivotal period that defined the spiritual and ethical agenda for most of the
world’s major religious and philosophical traditions
Ethical monotheism
Confucius, Daoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Hebrew, Greece (Socrates)
ii. “Spiritual technology” to tap into the human capacity for self-transcendence
(compassion, reason, fulfilling potential as humans)
Socrates: recognizing that one does not know all
Buddha: recognize imperment of self
Confucius: 5 relations (how to relate to others…get over self)
1. Eradicate egotism—“ekstasis”
Means "stepping out of self"
2. Promote empathetic ethos of the Golden Rule
b. The Ethical Focus of Axial Age Spirituality
Based less on dogma, more on practice of self-reform
Emphasis on how one behaves (not what one believes)
Can one’s faith translate into compassion for others?
So, how did all this change? How did religions take on such a different aspect?
Last quarter: foundation of religion and more personal experiences
This quarter: religion in the context of the state
200 BCE - ???
The Advent of Theocracy or the Fusion of Religion and State
Historical Trend towards Centralization and State Building
Starting around 3rd century BCE, political integration and expansion
BC emergence of empires
China - Qin Dynasty. Unification
Greece - polis --> political consolidation by Alexander
The Challenges of Size
Diverse needs and challenges presented by multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic
subjects
How to maintain social and political cohesion?
Religion curbs the diversity into cohesion
The Symbiotic Relationship Between Religion and the State
Functions of religions for the state
Excuse for expansion
Unity among people
A bunch more but ima dummy
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State can also be conducive to the propagation of faith
Potential Antagonism between Religion and State
i. Tension in reconciling question of higher authority
Different interests among political and philosophical leaders
ii. Church and State competing for resources and jurisdiction
Limited material resources - who controls that
The autonomy of religious cults
Separate groups. Subversive = cults --> persecution
In this delicate marriage of convenience, how did religious traditions evolve?
III. Rome: From Republic to Empire
a. A Tenuous Balance of PowerThe Roman Republic
Constitution for Checks and Balance
1. Two Consulsdespotic power
a. Absolute imperium over military affairs
Elected for 1 year term
One had power to veto the other
Senatearistocratic power
a. Served for life, originally as an “advisory council”
Entrenched power. Built-in power in society
b. Managed treasury
Real custodians of power
1. Assemblydemocratic power
At first mostly patricians, but by 4th century B.C.E., mostly
plebeians
Patricians rep people
According to Polybius, a “union that was sufficiently firm for all emergencies”
Whatever challenges Roman Republic faced, they sufficiently faced these
problems
Biased bc fan of Roman Republic (flawed system)
As Rome expanded, the needs of empire surpassed whatever the
Republican system could offer
b. Problems with the SystemPatricians vs. Plebeians
System dominated by Patricians
Nobles held office (including Tribune - head of Assembly)
Imposed limitations on marriage (no inter-class)
Religion as the most conspicuous and effective social barrier
1. Religious laws directly reinforcing the power of the few
Impose restrictions on who could participate on religion rituals
To hold office: participate in religious rituals
Bar commoners from holding office
Sumptuary laws: classes have different customs (dress, speak)
Early Christianity threatens this mindset
Flawed checks and balances
1. Tribunes represented the plebeians, but mostly of aristocratic roots
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