A broad hypothesis about the causes of an event. Perspective: hypotheses or explanations that emphasize various causes (power, institutions, ideas and historical forces) of world events over others: what is level of analysis. Levels of analysis - describe where the cause originates. Perspectives describe the substance of a course. Levels of analysis describe where the cause originates. Level of analysis: the direction or level, from which different causes of international change emerge. Four types are identified here: systemic, foreign policy, domestic, and individuals: what are the four levels of analysis. Foreign policy (between domestic and systemic levels: how does judgment play in examining international relations. Judgment comes into play for conclusions when there are many facts and tests on many perspectives as possible - decision makers never act on the basis of perfect information. Imperfect intelligence we have to rely on judgment. Lecture note: relativism vs. universalism (morality) Live and let live: tolerance of many truths .