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BIOL 2140 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Vegetative Reproduction, Physiology, Photosynthesis


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BIOL 2140
Professor
Ana H.
Study Guide
Final

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BIOL 2140

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Ecology
Biol.2140.001
Chapter 1:
What is ecology?
Ecology was first used by Ernest Haeckel in the late 1800’s.
Ecology is the scientific study of the abundance and distribution of
organisms and environmental conditions.
The large number of interactions among species (ex. Marine kelp forests)
resembles business interactions among humans.
Hence, Darwin compared species interactions as “the economy of nature”
Ecological understanding is never complete; scientists are always making
new discoveries
CH.1- Introduction: Ecology, Evolution and the
Scientific Method
Ecological Systems:
Biological entities that have their own internal processes and interact with
their external surroundings.
Individual: the most fundamental unit of ecology
Individuals acquire nutrients and energy, and produce waste
Individuals have a membrane boundary that separates internal processes
from the external environmental
Species: individuals that are capable of interbreeding or share genetic
similarity
Population:
Population: Individuals of the same species living in a particular area
Boundaries can be natural (ex. Forest edges) or political (ex. State lines)
Geographic range (distribution) is the extent of land water within which a
population lives
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Abundance: is the total number of individuals
Density: is the number of individuals per unit area
Change in the size refers to the increases and decreases in number of
individuals in an area over time
Composition is the makeup in terms of age, gender, or genetics
Communities:
Community: Populations of species of living together in a particular area
Boundaries are not always rigid, and many cover small or large areas.
Includes many types of interactions, such as predation and competition.
(ex. Cheetahs and gazelles on the African plains)
Ecosystems:
Ecosystem: One or more communties of living organisms interacting with
their nonliving physical and chemical enviornements
Research is focused on movement of energy and matter between physical
and biological components
This includes the “flow” of material from “pools” of elements, such as
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Boundaries are often not distinct
The Biosphere:
Biosphere: All ecosystems on Earth
Distant ecosystems are linked together by exchanged of wind and water by
the movement of organisms.
Studying ecology at different levels:
Individual approach: Understands how adaptations, or characteristics of an
individual’s morphology, physiology, and behavior enable it to survive in an
environment
Population approach: Examines variation in the number, density, and
composition of individuals over time and space
Community approach: Understands the diversity and interactions of
organisms living together in the same place
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