GOV 312L Final: Final Exam Review

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6 Feb 2017
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Final Exam Full Review
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Note: You can click on a section and click the hyperlink to go to it)
Module 17: Terrorism II: Counterterrorism and the Ethics of Torture 2
Module 18: Great Power Politics II: Hegemony, Power Transition Theory, and US-China
Relations 8
Module 19: The United States and International Institutions 14
Module 20: Democracy Promotion in US Foreign Policy 19
Module 21: US Trade Policy 23
Module 22: Finance and US Foreign Policy I Global Capital Markets, the Dollar, and
American Financial Power 26
Module 23: Finance and US Foreign Policy II Global Capital Markets, the Dollar, and
American Financial Power 29
Module 24: The International Politics of Oil 33
Module 25: Environmental Politics 35
Module 26: Conclusions - Looking Forward: American Decline or Resurgence? 38
In the News, Segment 10: Philippine President Duterte Turns to China, Election for the
U.S. Senate and its implications 39
In the News, Segment 11: FBI Director James Comey and Clinton emails, African
nations exit International Criminal Court 41
In the News, Segment 12: 2016 election and its aftermath 43
In the News, Segment 13: International reaction to the 2016 election 43
In the News, Segment 14: Trump’s deal with Carrier and OPEC’s deal on production
cuts 44
Practice Problems 45
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Module 17: Terrorism II: Counterterrorism and the Ethics of Torture
1. How are terrorist groups different from other types of threats to U.S. national interests?
1. Power Differential: terrorist groups are weaker than states
2. Deterrence: halting the possibility of an occurrence through the threat of
retaliation
a. do not have boundaries like a state does so it is hard to use
deterrence
3. Goals: because they are not states, their goals are limited
a. Besides ISIS, most terrorist groups do not focus on gaining and
controlling land
b. States have concrete goals, but terrorists groups are devoted to
ideologies
4. Geographic Location: terrorists are mobile and hard to locate, while
states have fixed boundaries
5. Strategies/Tactics: terrorist strategies of war are very random and
unconventional so it makes it hard to fight them because we are unaware
of the methods that they use
a. Terrorists seek to scare, besides scare tactics, the U.S. does not
know what they are seeking to do
b. A state has defined conventional tactics, strategies, and open goals
Are terrorist groups rational? Compare and contrast the arguments for and against the
idea that terrorist groups are rational political actors.
Abrams: NO
Terrorists do not show characteristics of rational cost-
benefit analysis in their actions
They do not have concrete goals
They are dedicated to radical goals and ideologies
Terrorism is a cultural phenomenon
Kydd and Walter: YES
Terrorists use violence because it works in achieving concrete goals
If they could use other methods that work, they would
According to Kydd and Walter, what five strategies do terrorist groups follow to convey
costly signals to target countries?
1. Attrition: Outlast the enemy through a sustained war of the wills
2. Provocation: Goad the enemy into conflict
3. Intimidation: Overthrow a government through terror
4. Spoiling: Sabotage peace negotiations through violence
5. Outbidding: Violent competition among terrorist groups attracts new recruits
2. Discuss how the attack on 9/11 led to the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan.
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Afghanistan’s principal ruling body, the Taliban, was protecting Al Qaeda. They
refused to turn over Bin Laden and other High Valuable Targets to the United States, so
the US invaded Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban and ensure the capture or death of
those responsible for 9/11. There was never an official declaration of war.
How did the decision not to distinguish between terrorists and states that harbor terrorists
play into this decision?
The decision not to distinguish between non-state and state actors broadened the
commitment of war. This was no longer a solely counterterrorist military effort.
How did considerations of domestic reaction and the possibility of another attack affect
this decision?
The fear of domestic backlash due to a perceived sense of individual security and the
ostensible imminent danger to American lives expedited and broadened the scope of the
war effort.
What were the key attributes of the initial campaign in Afghanistan? Explain the
significance of NATO invoking Article 5.
The principle objectives of the war in Afghanistan were to topple the Taliban, install a
government more friendly to American interests, and deny al-Qaeda a staging ground for
future attacks against US.3
1. Challenge because the terrain was treacherous, and had led to the decline of the
British Empire. (eg. Soviet Union)
2. The US provides significant aid to and allies with the Northern Alliance, a
collection of groups in Northern Afghanistan fighting the Taliban, which was
more present in the southern part. The CIA and special forces coordinated
coalitions held together by funding and weapons.
3. For the first time in the organization’s history, NATO invokes Article 5 of the
Washington Treaty, which states that an attack on the US is an attack on all of its
members, which obligated the NATO alliance to contribute to the war effort in
Afghanistan.
Why did great powers like Russia and China provide at least tacit support for this initial
campaign in Afghanistan?
This counterterrorist military effort represented a convergence of great power interests, as
terrorism was, and is, a threat to the legitimacy and viability of governments.
3. How did we get from the attack on 9/11 and war in Afghanistan to war in Iraq?
The Bush Doctrine stated that preemptive war was necessary in order to prevent future
attacks. In addition, Saddam Hussein was allegedly funding terrorists and developing
weapons of mass destruction. Many in Bush’s inner circle were adamant about deposing
of Saddam immediately after 9/11. They believed an invasion of Iraq would provide a
starting point to democratize the entire region.
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