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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 notes - perception.docx

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Brad Mc Kay

CHAPTER 5 - PERCEPTION o PERCEPTION: The process through which people take in sensations from the environment and interpret them so that sensations become meaningful experiences o Measuring perception: Psychophysics  Research that focuses on the relationship between physical energy in the environment and our psychological experience of that energy  Absolute Threshold – The minimum amount of energy needed to trigger a perceptual experience  Stimuli above the threshold are called supraliminal  Stimuli below the threshold (e.g., not enough energy or too brief) are called subliminal - Stimuli just above or below the absolute threshold will sometimes be detected and sometimes missed - So does the idea of “Absolute Threshold” best explain perception? MEASURING PERCEPTION: PSYCHOPHYSICS o Signal Detection Theory  Mathematical model of how each person’s sensitivity and response criterion combine to determine decisions about whether or not a stimulus has occurred  Sensitivity: the ability to detect a stimulus – influenced by intensity, capacity of sensory system and amount of background stimulation.  Response Criterion: willingness to respond to a stimulus – influenced by a motivation and expectations. o Detecting Differences  Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) – the smallest detectable difference between stimuli  differs depending on initial amount of stimulus & which sensory system is being stimulated  Weber’s Law: JND = KI - K is a constant for a particular sense (determined by the work of Weber) - I is the intensity of the stimulus o Magnitude Estimation Physical magnitude of a stimulus compared to the perceived magnitude. ORGANIZING THE PERCEPTUAL WORLD What our perceptual systems to do determine what stimuli go together to form objects o Basic Processes  Figure-Ground Organization Our perceptual system actively tries to assign certain objects to the background and others to the foreground.  Grouping Our perceptual system actively tries to determine if stimulus elements belong together as figures.  Proximity; Similarity; Continuity; Closure; Common Fate; Synchrony; Common Region; Connectedness PERCEPTION OF LOCATION AND DISTANCE o Two-Dimensional Location  Perceptual ability that allows us to detect whether a stimulus is to the right or to the left  Requires information about where the image of the items falls on the retina AND head & eye movement o Depth Perception  Perceptual ability that allows us to view the world in 3 dimensions and to distinguish the near from far  Interposition(occlusion) Closer items block the view of things farther away  Relative Size Larger items are perceived as closer and smaller object are perceived as farther away  Height in Visual Field Objects higher in the vis
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