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Chapter 12

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PSYC 351
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Chapter 12- Early Social And Emotional Development  10-20% of mothers suffer from postpartum depression  Children of mothers with PPD can have growth, developmental problems, behavioural problems  Since recovering from depression takes a long time, new approach tries to change how the mothers interact with their babies  The Keys to Caregiving Program developed by NCAST (Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training) is used to model nurturing behaviour by parents. Mothers are shown how best to respond to the nonverbal cues their infants give them  Mothers of 3 month old babies attended 5 weekly sessions of Keys to Caregiving ---> showed marked increase in their levels of interest and joy  So these kinds of programs increase infants' positive responsiveness and improves infant outcomes by helping the mother learn how she should interact with her baby  the baby is the PRODUCER of his own environment  Human social behaviour is TRANSACTIONAL- each person's action both affect and are affected by the actions of others 1. Theories of Early Social Development  Social development during the first years of life is unique in several important ways: o Social world consists of few individuals o These initial relationships influence the future and have long-term effects on child's social, personality and cognitive development o Children develop strong emotional relationships more easily and intensely during the infant years. Evolutionary and Biological Approaches  Social behaviours represent millions of years of gradual adaptation to the environment  John Bowlby's influence  Natural selection has provided infants and mothers innate system of behaviours designed to ensure the infant's survival  The infant promotes care giving behaviours by many ways: making interactions very pleasant for the mother (smiling, vocalizing, making eye contact, reduce signs of distress when mother gives attention, stops fussing when picked up), cute (women especially love baby like features), as well grow up we like children's features more  Caregiver has built-in mechanisms for doing what is necessary for the infant's survival  The individual's job is to "read" the infant's signal and decide what is wrong, what to do and when it has been effective  ethologists characterizes these complex sequences of innate behaviours as modal action patterns and assume that they are triggered by certain stimuli (such as the sound or smell of newborn pups).  how much is biological? most mothers have these stereotypical activities because they observe it in their culture  the behaviours that serve to keep mother and baby together during the early weeks and months of life emerge as part of an attachment process that also includes a strong emotional bond  baby emits care-seeking behaviours to everyone---> mother responds in a sensitive and consistent way---->baby comes closer to mother for comfort and reassurance  bowlby thinks that this attachment occurs at a sensitive period  contemporary evolutionary psychologists now suspect that the situation that bowlby's model was based on was highly unstable, with unpredictable changes in climate and habitat---> Humans are flexible and adaptive in social conditions  Now, theorists also think that adaptive or maladaptive depends on the situation: children who get attached to depressed mothers are at a bad risk Environmental/ Learning Approaches  Socialization- process by which a child's behaviour is moulded to fit with the society's roles, beliefs, and expectations; begins in infancy, continues throughout childhood; affects child's complex social behaviours (moral development, interaction with peers)  Social behaviours result from interactions between two individuals: caregiver-infant  infants produce behaviours that encourage the mother to approach and remain close (cry) ----> positive reinforcement (milk) or negative (removal of wet diaper)  mother learns to respond because it results in either negative reinforcement (baby stops crying) or positive reinforcement (baby smiles)  infant behaviours can be influenced by reinforcements: infant vocalizations increase if reinforced and decreased if subjected to an extinction procedure  separation protest and social referencing can be produced through conditioning  infant behaviours can increase (reinforce) or decrease (punish) the social behaviour of the caregiver Cognitive-Developmental Approaches  Social cognition- Knowledge of the social world and interpersonal relationships; begins in infancy  this field is concerned with how infants and caregivers cognitively represent their relationships with each other  Internal working model- An infant's and caregiver's cognitive conception of each other, which they use to form expectations and predictions  example of internal working model: If a baby cries and mother comes fast, if the baby is left alone then she is less likely to cry because she knows that if she needs her mother, the mother will be there. Similarly, the mother may form expectation that the baby wants to interact with her. So, she may play more with the child. Sociocultural Approaches  This approach focuses on the solution culture devise to deal with the survival of infants: survival of infants depends on bonds with caregivers who will protect and nurture them  believes that mothers have a built-in response that facilitates the caregiving and attachment process  there is a variation in caregiving arrangements  Interactionist  To under interactions, it needs to be one in a cultural context  Brofenbrenner's bioecological model- stresses the interactions of a changing organism in a changing environment compose of immediate settings and the larger social and cultural contexts in which the settings are embedded  indeed, conditions outside the caregiver-infant dyad can influence quality of the relationship  developmental niche- composed of three subsystems: o physical and social setting in which the child lives o cultural customs of child care and child rearing o psychology of the caregiver (includes beliefs regarding:)  nature and needs of children  child-rearing goals  their understanding of effective rearing technique 2. Mutual Regulation Between Infants and Caregivers  Attachment process becomes apparent after 1st year, but has roots in infancy  both the caregiver and the child influence each other's behaviours and adjust to it --- ------>smooth-running system of mutual regulation Crying  Baby's strongest and clearest communication  Part of baby's larger communication system  Ethologists/ Darwin: crying is a stimulus to trigger innate caregiving behaviours by mothers; gives info about baby's conditions and state to the mother  Learning theorists: crying becomes under baby's voluntary control--> can be conditioned  For crying to be a form of communication, two things are important: o different types should carry different messages (evident by different intensity, pitch); o listen should be able to discriminate one type from the other (comes partly through experience)  Parents can interpret cries by also interpreting other facial/external cues  role of crying as a communication skill has elements of both nature and nurture Emotions and the Affective System  Emotions- An internal reaction or feeling, can be positive or negative, and may reflect a readiness for action  Affect- the outward expression of emotions  Infant's ability to display different affective states is an important component of mutual regulation Development and Expression of Emotions  Babies' facial expressions of the basic emotions appear at different points in development  Disagreement about exactly what these basic primary emotions are  From birth, distress---> crying//// interest--->staring attentively//// disgust--> facial expression to unpleasant tastes, odours  babies have different types of smiles, varying in : lip retraction, cheek raising, jaw dropping  6-12 months--> different smiles to different types of pleasures  Sadness and anger---> 4 months  fear---> 7-8 months  increasingly aware of self (realizes other's pain is not their own)----> 2.5 years  2.5 yrs : infant's expression can be used to infer how the baby is feeling about a situation  But, we can't be certain that babies' affective responses are identical to those of adults  2.5 years--_> secondary emotions develop. Self-conscious emotions include: jealousy, embarrassment, empathy  2-3 years: self-conscious evaluative emotions---> shame, guilt, pride. The baby compares own behaviour to a standard. o standards can be external rules and expectations o standards can be internal expectations of themselves. o Failure to meet these standards---> self conscious evaluative emotions Socialization of Emotions  How can culture shape development? o keeping baby close: infant need to work less for attention o modelling: parents show positive facial expression/negative to encourage that kind of socialization. o reinforcement o Conversation (for older children) o As children's get older, they begin to mask their behaviours. Why?  Considering other people's feelings  fit the norms  avoid negative outcomes  protect self-esteem  Children's increasing awareness about emotional display rule- the expectations or attitudes a society holds toward the expression of affect. Children understand these rules from 2 yrs.  How parents respond to affects can help regulate the emotional responses of the child. Punitive/dismissive---> emotional dysregulation. Supportive/comforting---> child sees support  Number of ways parents help children manage their negative emotional arousals: o distract attention from frightening or frustrating situations o Alter their interpretation (that's just a story) o problem-solve with child: suggesting alternative and more adaptive ways to react (ask a teacher for help rather than scratching her) Recognizing Emotions  baby can influence mother and mother can influence baby. But before mother can influence baby, baby needs to recognize and interpret mother's responses  infant's ability to recognize emotions occur in stages  6 weeks---> not very good at scanning faces  5-6 months--> babies understand emotional expressions (babies smile at happy faces)  end of 1st year-->infants begin to use information about other people's emotional expression to regulate their own behaviour (social referencing)  9 months baby-->crossed cliff with positive look on mother's face  when 10 months old (but not 7 months)old babies come across fearful things, they look at mother for approval----> adjusts their activity accordingly Face-to Face Interactions  fundamental to the development of an effective communication system between mother and child and for the development of strong attachment relation  microanalysis- research technique in which researchers record two individuals as they are interacting with each other and then the videos are examined side by side  2 principal features of both newborn behaviour in general and caregiver-infant dyadic exchanges: cycle and pattern Care-giver-Infant Interaction Cycles  newborn cycles from states of attention to avoidance.  Avoidance because too much interaction might be too arousing  early face to face interaction is important because it shows if the baby is able to regulate his/her emotions Care-giver-Infant Interaction Patterns  as the baby's caregiver comes to realize the cycle, they adjust their behaviour  4-5 months, caregivers stimulate the baby when the baby is attentive  interactional synchrony- the smooth intermeshing of behaviours between caregiver and infant: caregiver and the child are on and off at the same time  after synchronous pattern emerges, caregiver waits for baby to respond and then she responds back---> primary dialogues--> babies enjoy turn taking  affect mirroring- the degree to which caregivers gauge their communicative behaviours in response to input from their infants  high affect mirroring--> positive infant behaviour When interaction is disrupted: still face paradigm  babies turn their gaze at different direction  reduces their overall level of positive effect  show distress and protests  babies who don't have interaction with their clinically depressed mothers, show distress, spend more time crying and are less active. But, they are good with their nursery teachers  disruption can also occur for premature babies who spend more time sleeping, are less alert, less responsive, smile less, more irritable--->mothers spend less time with them Temperament  Temperament is the aspect of personality which includes children's emotional expressiveness and responsiveness to stimulation I. Defining Temperament Is temperament inherited?  Yes, there is considerable support for this. Is temperament stable?  Yes, fairly stable. However, there is also some patterns of change, which could mean that it occurs through genetic reasons. Environmentalists say that stable because environment is stable. Is temperament evident early in life?  Yes. Fetal HR during pregnancy are good predictors. However, only some temperamental differences are seen in later years. Mixed beliefs. II. Conceptualizing Temperament : 3 models of temperament Goodness of Fit  Goodness of fit- a concept describing the relation between a baby's temperament and his/her social and environmental surroundings  degree of goodness of fit determines degree of influence of infant temperament on later development  New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) - to study infant temperament and its implications for later psychological adjustment  Project's strategy: categorize infant temperament and then examine whether these categories related to the child's social and emotional development at a later age. 3 categories: easy baby, difficult baby, slow to warm-up baby o easy baby: regular patterns of eating, sleeping, toileting, low to moderate intensity reaction; 40% o difficult baby: opposite ; 10% o slow-to-warm-up baby: adapts poorly to changing situations but responds at a relatively low intensity; 15%  Categories remain widely used method, but there are problems: parental reports are biased, some parents are more objective than others, parents report what listeners would like to hear  Alternative method is questionnaire: gives quantitative information, but may also have biases, how well they understand the questions, how well they can compare their child with others, how they are feeling at the moment of filling out the questionnaire EAS (Emotionality, Activity, Sociability)  biological approach, but researchers are interactioni
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