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Chapter 15

PSYC 351 Chapter 15.docx

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University of Calgary
PSYC 351

Chapter 15 Socialization Within the Family  Parenting style o Parents differ in how they socialize their kids (even between kids) o Goal of studies: identify differences among parents, determine effects on children's dev o Dimensions in which parents vary:  parental warmth: acceptance/responsiveness; the amount of support, affection, and encouragement that parent provides as opposed to hostility, shame, or rejection; high level of warmth--> positive child outcomes  parental control: demandingness; the degree to which the child is monitored, disciplined, regulated as opposed to left largely unsupervised; generally beneficial, but mixed results have been seen o instead of looking at effect of one factor over child's development, researchers now look at an overall Parenting style, because one factor always influences another to some extent o Parenting style- The overall pattern of child rearing provided by a parent, typically defined by the combination of warmth and control that the parent demonstrates  Dian Boumrind's idea- combined warmth and control to make different styles  Authoritative parenting style- high degree of both warmth and control; the parent is really caring and sensitive but also puts clear limits for the child and also provides rationales for them.  Authoritarian parenting- combines high control with low warmth; the parents are demanding, controlling, use threats and punishments  Permissive parenting- high warmth, low control; the parents are loving, sensitive, but puts little limit on behaviour  Uninvolved (disengaged) parenting style- low warmth, low control  Outcomes:  Authoritative: most positive child outcome; the kids become curious, self-confident, well behaved, perform well in school, popular, engaging in stupid activities are low  Authoritarian: children are anxious, easily upset, low in self confidence, anger, aggression when frustrated, poor relation with peers, at risk to get involved in wrong things, performance is poorer. Punitive parenting has a positive correlation to aggression in child!  punitive parenting does not necessarily make aggressive children. But, if parents changed their practices , children's aggression changed. So, if parent became more punitive, child became more aggressive and vice versa  Permissive: child is impulsive, immature, disobedient, overly dependent on adults, don't persist well in the face of difficulty, don't do that well in school, rebellious, high risk of antisocial behaviour  Uninvolved: most negative outcomes; insecure attachment in infancy, low social and academic competence, high risk of substance abuse, at the extreme, neglected (a form of abuse)  These results don't apply to EVERY child. Many children turn out fine. Different styles may vary across groups. The aforementioned results are mainly from Caucasian middle income families  Ethnic and cultural differences o Authoritative rearing is generally beneficial for adolescents from second-generation Chinese American families, But for first-generation, it's not really beneficial o Authoritarian is more common in chinese and african american families. why might this be?  cultural beliefs and values- in chinese culture, it's important to develop respect of children for the elderly...so, frequent teaching is more important than overt affection  economic and personal necessity - for lower income families, not monitoring kids would be dangerous/risky. So, firm and immediate control is a higher priority, which makes an overall well being of the child o ultimately what matters is how the child interprets the parents' practice, which in turn depends on the overall cultural context within which they occur  The role of fathers o fathers have assumed an increased role in children's care, because of social changes that resulted from mothers entering the workforce o no single pattern characterizes all fathers o fathers devote less time to child care than mothers in general o although fathers are skilled and sensitive in performing basic care giving activities, they usually don't o fathers' interaction with children usually centre on physical stimulation and play, especially with boys (from infancy through childhood) o The pattern is not universal though!  sweden, father mother differences in tendency to engage children in play is few  israeli kibbutz families: similarity in family role (mothers still perform basic caregiving activities though) o fathers hold astronger gender-appropriate behaviour than do mothers, and are more likely to treat boys and girls in ways that promote sex differences in development o Fathers foster and promote relations with peers o Fathers contribute to toddlers' and preschoolers' intellectually growth and language dev through reading to them, engaging them in conversations; fathers' use of positive forms of parental control with their preschool age children is predictive of the children's better cognitive and behavioural functioning more than 6 yrs later o fathers contribution to academic success of kids o for majority, kids relationship with both mom and dad are equal  The child's contribution o Temperament characteristics influence type of parenting style o difficult children receive a lot of attention at the beginning, but by 2.5 years, they get less soothing and less maternal involvement (probably because mother doesn't feel rewarded anymore) o other temperamental dimensions that influence parenting style are: activity level, inhibition/timidity o development proceeds most successfully when parents are able to match their caregiving practices to the nature and needs of the child o transactional nature: difficult babies can have parents that are able to manage it, but others cannot, but the characteristics of the child is what can also elicit behaviours from the parent o effect of children's characteristics on parental behaviour are not limited to the early years or to inborn temperamental qualities o the harsher the child is/ the less they listen to mother's request, the more strict the parenting style tends to become. but if compliant, then verbal reasoning is most of the time used. o it doesn't mean child and parent contribution in socialization exchanges are equal; nor does it mean that child has more control; what it means is that research results need to be interpreted with that in mind. Variations in Peer Relations  Friendship- an enduring relationship between two individuals characterized by loyalty, intimacy, and mutual affection; It is different from peer relations because friendship is reciprocal relationship of affection o Conceptions of friendship  Young children-->friendship focuses on concrete, external attributes (a friend is someone who is fun to play with, who shares things)  Older children--> abstract attributes (caring), loyalty, intimacy, sees friendship as an enduring relationship o Determinants of friendship  Similarity (age, gender, ethnicity and race); gender is a better predictor  age: children tend to pick friends who are of the same age, even when no restrictions  gender: becomes quite strong in middle childhood; better predictor than age; even in adolescence, when cross-sex relations emerge, same-sex friendship continues to predominate  ethnicity and race: increases with age; elementary school kids --> twice as likely chose friends of same ethnicity; depends on degree of integration in both the school system and neighbourhood  behavioural homophily - what matters most is behavioural homophily- similarity between peers in behaviours and interests.  friends tend to be similar in a lot of aspects such as test score achievements, academics, what they do outside of school  bimodal: children who are similar become frien
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