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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - History of Neuroscience.docx

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PSYC 304
Boris Gorzalka

Chapter 1 – Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience 1. Describe blind sight and the behavior of people with split brains and explain what these phenomena contribute to our understanding of self-awareness. - Person is only conscious of the left hemisphere, which controls speech - When stimulus is perceived by right hemisphere, person is not aware of it, but we know it’s been perceived because the left hand (controlled by right hemisphere) can choose the correct corresponding object - Left hemisphere is aware of itself but right is not - This tells us that self-awareness/the conscious is most likely related to our ability to form speech 2. Indicate the goals of scientific research. - To explain the phenomena they study by generalization or reduction - Generalization: general law; situations fit into law - Reduction: fundamental mechanisms; situation explained by simpler phenomena 3. Describe the biological roots of physiological psychology. - Antiquity: heart is root of emotions - Hippocrates: emotions assigned to the brain - Aristotle: brain cooled the passions of heart - Galen: agreed with Hippocrates - Descartes:  Everything is mechanical  Called involuntary reactions reflexes  Linked the mind to brain  Thought the pineal body filled with fluid and caused pressurized fluid to flow from the brain to nerves in order to make muscles move  Used model because it could be tested - Galvani: stimulated frog’s nerve to cause muscle contraction even when detached from brain - Muller:  Promoted experimental techniques to physiology  Doctrine of specific nerve energies: same stimuli in different channels cause different perception and reaction - Fluorens: experimental ablation on animals to discover which part of the brain controls what - Brocco: observed behavior of people with brain damage - Fritsch and Hitzig: stimulated dog’s brain, observed primary motor cortex at work on opposite side of the body - Helmholtze: measured speed of nerve impulse 4. Explain the role of natural selection in the evolution of behavioral traits. - Functionalism: behavioral characteristics of animals perform useful functions - All behavior that persists have a selective advantage, or else it’ll be selected against and fade away 5. Describe the evolution of the human species. - Amphibians: 360 mil - Therapside: dominant land animal until series of volcanic eruptions - Cynodont: (small therapside) survived and became ancestor of mammals - Early mammals: nocturnal insectivores, lived in trees - Extinction of dinosaurs: 65 mil, opened niches - Primates began small bu
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