CLA237H5 Chapter 4: Chapter 4

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18 May 2016
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Chapter 4- The Greek Before History, 12000-1200 BC
The end of the last Ice Age
-In last 150 years, human activity raised average temperature on earth
-Greece stayed warmer than the rest of Europe but at the coldest point, around 18,000 BC, its winters were longer and colder than
anything classical Greeks had o complain about
-The earliest evidence of humans in Greece dates back 200,000 years but fully modern humans (homosapiens) entered 35 000 years
ago. Tiny population (bands of 15-25 ppl)
-Edible plants available only in summer so population was constantly moving, following herds of animals that migrated into the
mountains in summer and came downt o plains in winter
Greeks and Indo-Europeans
-Sanskirt similar to classical languages
-Indo European (Irish, Gothic, early Persian, Sanskrit etc.)
-Major languages of modern Europe and important languages in Asia are Indo-European. Some time in prehistory, one group spoke a
proto-Indo-European language, a single language that was somehow ancestor to all later Indo-European languages and that group
migrated Across Europe and south Asia displacing or replacing earlier inhabitants and their languages
Neolithic Society and Economy (5000-3000 BC)
-Invention of plow; farmers could turn the soil of larger areas than they could with handheld hoes or digging sticks. Drawback;
farmers needed oxen to pull themoxen needed their own foodplowing even more land and working harder still
-As population grew, new technology spread
-Secondary Products Revolution: At first, domesticated cattle raised for meat but soon they were kept longer for more than that. A
shift toward raising animals as much for traction, milk and wool as for meat
-Mediterranean triad diet increased caloric output, improved health, supported population growth. Made agriculture more labour-
intensive
-Farming societies: private property including land; the family is core institution; gender, age and class distinctions become
pronounced
-Ppl wanna keep particular fields and pass them onto their children. Defining legitimate heirs becomes important. Best land
concentrated in hands of few; creates inequality of wealth
-Poor with no land, would work on other’s fields
The Early Bronze Age (3000-2300 BC)
-Mixed copper with tin or arsenic to make bronze, far harder than copper (origin of name of period)
-Advances in architecture; from bigger-than-usual Neolithic houses, we move to monumental buildings
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