Soc 236 Readings
Gloablization: a process whereby goods , information, people, money, communication, fashion and
other forms of culture travels across the national borders.
1. Steadily shrinking and interdependent
2. A process: like immigration, transnational travel, using email
3. Economics, social, political and cultural
4. Remolding the lives of people worldwide
5. Doesn’t affect everyone the same way
Production: Since 1970s transnational corporations have practiced “Global Assembly Line”
- Things made from different areas of the world
ex. Dell, Nokia; have their parts assembled elsewhere then sold in the developed countries.
Races to the bottom: developed countries wages for industrial/manufacturing positions are too high
Ex. U.S. pay $16/ hour
Transnational domino effect: jobs that were once moved to Mexico, are now being moved to China (61
Markets: Corporations market worldwide
Ex. Nokia; sells products in 130 countries
Technology: made the world smaller; geography irrelevant. Things are much more convenient.
Ex. Robots, fiber optics, computers, container ships etc.
Corporate Restructuring: corporations reorganized internally and cooperated / allied with other
multinational to take on different tasks – outsourcing
Ex. Corporations only take on maybe 1/3 of the workd and share the rest – Boeing Dream Liner
Neoimperialism: 3 world countries relying on first world investors
- Subordinated them to foreign corporations, international institutions and dominant states.
Changing structure of work: employers have ball game; they outsource, downsize, and made permanent
- These results in worker security depletion; health care, pensions and other social benefits gone. *employers can move the operations elsewhere for cheaper wages and less benefits = races to the
Global Institutions: powerful and accelerating globalization ; they have control over economic
development in under developed countries.
WTO – World Trade Organization
IMF – international Monetary Funds
Neoliberal Ideology and Policies:
Locke&Smith: market forces will bring property, liberty and democracy if unhindered by the
- Promote privatization, deregulation and dismantling of welfare state
- Supports free trade ; markets without borders (without tariffs and other restrictions)
o Believes that it expands economic freedom and spurs competition, thus raising
productivity and living standards of people.
“NAFTA” – North American free trade act
Governance: nation-state power has diminished due to the globalization
- Accepting “neoliberal” ways, they’re actually going the welfare state.
Permeable Borders: consequence of flow of people is reverse flow of money back to their country
Ex. People immigrate (esp. women), come to first world nations to work as maids and send money back
National Culture: a place and time – knowledge, symbols and stories that people share, giving the
nation and its people an identity.
Global Culture: homogenization – one perspective; based on consumption, media, Americana, English.
This sometimes clashes with other cultures and religions
Ex. Westernization consumer lifestyle; symbolized by Nike/Music/ Movies and others
Sceptics: believes that it is all talk, globalization was present years ago / centuries ago. Globalization is put forth by free-marketeers trying to dismantle welfare system and cut back on state
Radicals: real and consequences can be felt everywhere
Ex. Global market is more developed.
Ex. Nation-state is no longer existent, political don’t have control over events.
Giddens believes that sceptics and radicals have made a mistake and have seen globalization in only
economics. It should be seen: cultural, technology and political
- Globalization is the reason for the revival of local cultures
Ex. Scots want more interdependence in the U.K
Television Revolution: protests from one country were watched and also taken to the street – 1989
Globalization is only partly westernization
- Reverse colonization: the non-western countries influence developments in the west.
ex. Emergence of a globally oriented high-tech sector in India or Latinizing of Los Angeles
Nation-state: still powerful and influential but not as powerful as it once was.
- No more enemies
- Face risks and dangers instead of enemies
Shell Institutions – outside is the same but the inside has changed, they are too small to give what the
Friedman – the world is flat
Infosus – Nilekani in Bangalore
- Definition of globalization; outsourcing and westernization
- India is a potential competitor * playing field are being leveled
o Opportunity for competition; greater knowledge can come together for a greater force
Global 1.0 – country vs country
Global 2.0 – corporations vs. corporations
Global 3.0 – individuals vs individuals
Ghemawat – the world is not flat Mocks Friedman’s view:
- Look for signs and symbols
- Focuses more on technology development as drive for change
- Only a fraction of global world
10 percent presumption
- Dominate international financial
o Connected but statistics reveal = more domestics than global
- Investments: FDI foreign direct investments
o Less than 10% and 90% was domestic investments
- Merger wave less than 20%
- Focus more on data trend instead of momentum; policies are reversable
A strong national defense:
Nileskani; India may serve U.S
- But is not exempt from political and geographical constraints
- There is still a border in our “borderless world”
Globalization and its Specters - Globalization from above
Productions: global assembly lines – when things are mane in more than one country
- Good for different countries to contribute because it:
o Creates more jobs
o Opportunity for westernization
o Good outsourcing ex. Infosus
Markets: corporations see the entire world as a market in which they buy and sell goods, services and
Finance: Rise of the Eurodollars 1970s
Technology: reduced the distance barrier to economics integration. Creating new technology is
Global institutions: WTO, World Bank, IMF; accelerates globalization processes.
Corporate Restructure: races to the bottom: pay less, no human rights, downsize, outsource of work - Corporations focus on neo-liberal = government has less say, focus o