soc275 notes 08/01/2014 19:50:00
← Chapter 1
← Human Beings: An Engendered Species:
← >Different ways of knowing, listen to different moral voices, have different ways of speaking
and hearing each other.
← > This ‘erplanet’ theory of complete and universal gender difference is also typically
the way we explain another universal phenomenon, gender inequality. This theory assumes that gender
is a property of individuals, that is, that gender is a component of one’s identity.
← > Biological determi ism:
← The view that the behavior and character of an organism, group, or system are determined by
biological factors. Most careful scientist shun true determinism, but determinist tendencies can be found
both among scientist and in popular culture.
← >Differential socialization:
← Associated with the ‘nurture’ side of the naturenurture debate, this perspective asserts that
men and women are different because they are socialized differently from birth, thus acquiring
‘masculine’ or ‘ feminine’ traits, behaviors, and attitudes.
← Sex difference: Chromosomal , anatomical, and hormonal difference between females and
males, to be considered sex differences, these distinctions must be biologically rather than culturally
← >there are enormous ranges of femaleness and maleness. Though our musculature differs,
plenty of women are physically stronger than plenty of men.
← Sex: Refers to the biological apparatus, the male and the female, our chromosomal, chemical,
← ← Gender: Refers to the meanings that are attached to those difference within a culture. The
meanings of gender vary from culture to culture and vary within any one culture over historical time.
← Social constructionism: The theoretical orientation that sees the expression and
organization of gender not as the outcome of biology, but as the result of historical and cultural change,
the socialization of individuals, and the continuous interplay between gendered individual and gendered
institutions. Social constructionist view human nature as much as more malleable and variable than do
← Racialized: Racialization, as a concept, recognizes that the attribution, of race.
← Privilege : The advantages that come from being a member of a dominant group ( based on
gender, race, class, ability, or sexuality), the principle of which may be the presumption of normalcy and
← ender and Power: Hegemonic Masculinity and Emphasized F mininity.
← > One of the important elements of a socialconstructionist approachespecially if we intend to
dislodge the notion that gender differences alone are decisiveis to explore the differences among men
and women, because, as it turns out, these are often more decisive than the differences between
women and men.
← > Masculinities and femininities means different things to different groups of people at different
times. Thus, that all masculinities and femininities are not created equal.
← > Hegemonic: Something that is upheld as the model; hegemonic ideals may be contested,
but cannot be ignored because of their cultural power and ubiquity.
← > Hegemonic masculinity: Is constructed in relation to various subordinated
masculinities as well as in relation to women.
← >Emphasized femininity: R.W. Connell’s model of female gender ideology, which
asserts that femininity is displayed as compliance with gender inequality and is ‘oriented to
accommodating the interests and desires of men’.
← ← ender Differences as ‘Deceptive Distinct ons’
← The existence of multiple masculinities and femininities dramatically undercuts the idea that the
gender differences we observe are due solely to differently gendered people occupying genderneutral
← he interplanetary theory of gender assumes that, whether through biology or socialization,
women act like women, no matter where they are, and that men act like men, no matter where they are.
← eceptive distinctions: difference between men and women that appear to be gender
differences, but may be the result of different positions within society.
← Despite the persistence of the interplantery theory of gender difference, men and women are
more similar than different. Gender difference exits but its neither complete or absolute. Most societies
have exhibited gender inequality in the form of male dominance. Biological determinism can not fully
explain gender difference or domination. Developmental psychology provides evidence of differential
socialization, suggesting that men and women are different because they are socialized to be different.
← To understand gender difference we need to understand the way in which institutions and
organizations are gendered, the way that they reproduce the differences between men and women and
reinforce the idea of gender inequality
← 6 Feb,2014
← Gender and the Family
← Most of the reduction in house hold work between men and women are a result of women
doing less not men doing more
← Dual Earner Couple
← When men and women get married they become more gendered and traditional and specially
when they have kids they become more traditional
← So women does more work than men
← Single women cook more than single men
← Married women, employed increase or is more than married men employed
← When women get married they have more work but men have less
← How is gender reproduced in families and romantic partnership?
← “ Stalled Revolution” or unfinished revolution ( in gender roles)
← eg women work force participation has been increasing
← and men’s work and child work is increasing up but not at the same rate as women’s work.
← Statistically women has more stress than men due to house work, child care and etc
← “Second shift” (Hochschild,1989) “ the responsibility for housework in addition to paid
employment” (Kimmel and Holler). Women’s stress
← Institutions and Gender in The Family
← Divorce Act 1985 gender neutral custody=
← Gay Marriage and Adoption
← Child care with men ← The workplace and gender in the family
← Reproducing traditional gender roles
← Before industrialization more men would work and women stay home to take care of their kids
← With industrialization men were convinced that they can work out in factories and make money
rather than the forms
← Workplaces built around breadwinner/homemaker model
← Workplaces have the assumption that the ideal worker is someone who doesn't have kids,
responsibilities and someone who can work and not work at home. That's why men were more
appreciated in work place since they didn't have to take care of their kids or cook at home.
← But with time these things have changed, now more women work and less women stay at
← Workplace culture and policies= even though there is workplace cultures and policies we can
not always take advantage of these. Eg we cant go home everyday early to pick up our kids else the
boss wont like it
← Implications for Health
← Time for cooking? Canada’s obesity rates at historic
← Hegemonic Masculinity =men encouraged to prioritize breadwinning. men are at the top
of breadwinner and bottom of child care
← Devaluation of Care work= why we never call care work working
← Because we always think that the paid work is the more valued work even though child care is
not easy or cooking
← Challenging traditional gender roles= challenging devolution of care work:
← “ social reproduction” includes how food clothing and shelter has immediate . this work
is valuable in terms of our society and reproducing the work force and maintaining the work force in
terms of economic. So its “integral to economic and social life” feb 13, 2014
← 1) how do our workplace roles influence our gender identities?
← Bread Winning and Masculinities
← The pressure on men to do something with their life regarding bread winning
← Aggression and heterosexuality
← What is the point of watching emenim movie?
← Protest masculinity(Connell 1995; Tolson 1977):
← Definition: A pronounced or “hyper” masculinity performed by men from economically and
socially marginalized groups.
← Men’s success as breadwinners > the way en choose to “do” masculinity
← Working class focus: there is more attention to aggression and heterosexuality = catcalling etc
overt display of heterosexual prowess meaning looking at women in sexual way
← What about Racialization? Racialized group in Ontario are making 30% less than the
non racialized group because of racism
← Which racialized group have the highest unemployment rate? Arab/ west
← Women’s movement into Breadwinning: Effects on Masculinity and
← Deviance Neutralization: “ rationalization strategies engaged in to minimize the extend
to which one deviates from a real or perceived norm” men and women are making up transgressing
gender roles. For example, guy doing the laundry and neutralizing it by emphasizing its masculinity.
Another example, straight couples: woman with higher $ or man unemployed. Men do less housework
even if he is unemployed. Another example with gay couples: who cooked the last meal? Lesbian
couple: “ she did” . Gay male couple: “ I did” why is it so common to say I did or she did even if its not
true? The idea is that they are protecting their partner. The women want their partner to look good and
the men protect their partners identity, they didn't want their partner to look bad by cooking, since
traditionally cooking is women’s job. There is a trend in Hollywood that all the women who won the best