Humanism: erasmus shared the humanist emphasis on right living and deeds rather than doctrine. Augustine vs. luther: augustine believed grace was made stronger by human cooperation through works of charity, luther believed that the act of reconciliation was not a goal to be achieved but a gift from god. The saving act was god"s alone, purely by grace, and was not tied to human participation but was freely given, to be received by faith. Indulgences: based on the belief that even a forgiven sin still carried penalty that had to be addressed through penance, criticized by luther. Luther, according to tradition, nailed a set of propositions on the church door of the cathedral at wittenberg, challenging the practice. Theses : pope leo x issued a license or permission to sell indulgences. Luther: following 95 theses, condemned for heresy in 1520 o.