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Chapter 5-8

HIST 2311 Chapter 5-8: Unit 2 - The Rise of Philosophies Lecture Video Analysis

Course Code
HIST 2311
David Mayes

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Video Analysis
The Rise of Philosophies
Political Instabilities
There were different events and development of the states during and before the Christ period
(BC). In China, there was the problem of political instabilities which led to the emerging of
numerous empires; thus leading to the rise of the philosophies. In China, the Xia, Shang, and
Zhou dynasties helped them to stay in power while destroying their enemies who rose against
them. The process enabled them to rise more than others in China. Besides, this was during the
period of the warring states (403-221 B.C). As China went to war in this period there was the
evolution of new philosophies in eastern Asia (“Unit 2, Sect A - Rise of Philosophies &
Alternative Ideas"). Through political instabilities, the growing violence which includes the
killing of innocent people, heavy punishments, and heavy taxes which were imposed on citizens
people were inspired to gather ideas that would serve as solutions to endangered human race.
Therefore, the rise of philosophies contributed to the decrease of violence in various ways.
The Economy and the Trade Cross Roads
In India, the growth and prosperity of the trade lead to the rise of philosophies. During this era,
India exported cotton for making clothes, perfumes, pepper, pearls as well as gems. However,
these were mostly for noblemen or the rich people. At the same time, they carried out the
importation of different goods namely; horses, silver, and slaves from west and silks from China.
In India, the third philosophy that emerged is the Buddhism. The raised philosophy had about
four different noble truths, and some of these include the suffering which dominates peoples’
experience and the cause of suffering which is desire or craving. Besides, one can extinguish
pain by craving the curse and thereby attain nirvana as well as the noble eightfold path that leads
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to extinction of aspiration and nirvana. Therefore, the expansion of Buddhism was a result of
people organizing themselves into different communities while spreading the message; though a
lot of traditional teachers rejected it.
The Rise of City-States of Policy
The war in the early days led to the destruction of the Greece state. After the Greek dark ages, all
the Greece small villages came together and formed different groups called the city-states which
were made to seek strong protection. For this reason, they wanted to establish an organized trade;
thus creating the strong centers leading to the rise of the philosophies. Each state was under one
ruler governed by the topmost leader who controlled all the other rulers ("Unit 2, Sect A - Rise of
Philosophies & Alternative Ideas"). In addition to that, all the city-states spoke one language
which used to unite them and for that reason, the communication was secure; hence, the easy
running of trade. The states also shared the same gods, and they all believed in them, as they
feared punishment from the gods who were known to punish criminals. Therefore, the
organization of states led to the rise of philosophies.
The First Age of Empires
China under the Qin Dynasty
Qin the emperor-Shi Huangdi (22-210 BC) was the first emperor of the Chinese Empire, and his
word was considered final. That being the case, he was like a god, and he made things tough and
harder for people regarded stubborn to his rule. He expanded his territory through organizing
attacks to the nearby weaker states. Through doing all these for many years, the Emperor had
many enemies in his empire as well as in the neighborhood; hence, demanded for continued
security. In addition to that, the empire was ruled by the single government, and in that time, the
philosophy was popular in the state of China ("Unit 2, Sect A - First Age of Empires"). The
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